Tamika Mallory, the ADL, & the Hypocrisy of the Anti-Black Zionists!

Minister Farrakhan and Ms. Mallory.

For the past month, Women’s March Co-organizer Tamika Mallory has faced relentless criticism for doing what millions and millions of African-Americans have done for decades and generations of their lives: she attended a speech by Nation of Islam leader, Minister Louis Farrakhan.

While speaking, Minister Farrakhan made remarks which have been criticized for being anti-Semitic by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL).  When asked about these statements, Ms. Mallory stated,“I think people have to ask Minister Farrakhan about his views. I’m not responsible for Minister Farrakhan, nor am I a spokesperson for him.”  [1]

She continued by stating, “What I do know is that I’ve worked with Minister Farrakhan for many years to address some of the ills in the Black community, where we’ve transformed lives… In those areas we have been able to work together. As it relates to some of the statements he has made and some of his personal views, people have to ask him about that.” [2]

Organizations such as the ADL refused to accept this and took to Twitter and other social media to criticize not only Ms. Mallory but other Black leaders who would dare share the same breathing space as Minister Farrakhan.                                             

The ADL has furthered called for Ms. Mallory to resign from her position in the Women’s March. The ADL complains,”Tamika Mallory, one of the leaders of the Women’s March, who got a special shout-out from Farrakhan and who regularly posts laudatory pictures of him on her Instagram account — as does Carmen Perez, another leader of the March.“ [3]

Yet, former ADL director Abe Foxman has appeared in several photographs smiling with Israeli prime minister Shimon Peres, a man who offered to sell apartheid, South Africa, a long range missile called the burglar. [4]

Former, ADL director, Abe Foxman takes picture with Shimon Peres who once advocated that Apartheid, South Africa needed,”More Modern Weapons.”

After signing a defense agreement with apartheid, South Africa in 1975, Peres proudly posed in a photograph with Hendrik Van Den Berg, who was known as the most feared man in South Africa due to his role in mass-murdering Black, anti-apartheid, activists. [5]  

Why didn’t the ADL attack Peres with as much tenacity for taking a photo with Hendrik Van Berg, with they did Ms. Mallory for uploading a photograph with Farrakhan?

Despite Peres appearing in a photo with a mass-murderer of Black people and his role in arming apartheid South Africa, the ADL once hosted a celebration where they provided Peres with the distinguished statesmen award claiming Peres changed the world for the better. [6]

Foxman asserted, “Just think of the diverse contributions Shimon Peres has made to mankind?” [7]  It would appear the ADL does not hold itself to the same standard it seeks to impose upon Ms. Mallory.  Foxman has also  shared platforms and taken photographs with former Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon, who believed that the racist white settlers in apartheid South Africa needed,”more modern weapons.” [8]  Was there any outcry about this appearance? No. 

 ADL’s role in Anti-Black Violence

In the Unspoken Alliance: Israel Secret Relationship with Apartheid, South Africa, Sasha Polakow-Suransky writes that, “As the anti-apartheid campaign turned its attention to Israeli links with South Africa, the ADL entered the propaganda frat, publically attacking Nelson Mandela’s ANC with arguments that mirrored those of hardline security officials in Pretoria.” [9]  Indeed, instead of repudiating Peres for signing a defense agreement with Apartheid, South Africa, in 1986, the then national director of the ADL, Nathan Perlmutter co-authored an article defending apartheid and South Africa’s President P.W. Botha while denouncing Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress as, “totalitarian, anti-humane, anti-democratic, anti-Israel and anti-American.” [10]  If the ADL had been aware of Nelson Mandela’s photograph with Minister Farrakhan, given their history, the ADL would have probably used that to call for Nelson Mandela to step down from his position. 

The ADL even dispatched spies throughout the United States to monitor groups working to end apartheid in South Africa. [11]] Working as a spy for the ADL, Roy Bullock passed on data he collected on anti-apartheid activists to the racist intelligence agency of Apartheid, South Africa. [12]

After this repugnant history, it’s absolutely absurd for the ADL to even posture as though its a credible civil rights organization when they have not  made any acknowledgment or amends with Black communities for their decision to support white murderous rule in apartheid, South Africa.

The Israeli Defense Force vs the Nation of Islam

Whilst criticizing Ms. Mallory for associating with the NOI, the ADL in events such a, “National Counter-Terrorism Seminar in Israel” [13]  demonstrates it  is more than willing to associate and even promote the Israeli defense force, an  organization that has a demonstrated track record of actual physical violence against Black people.

A 1984 U.N report titled, “Recent developments concerning relations between Israel and South Africa,” states that the Israeli defense force’s “Collaboration with bantustans in military and police affairs is alarming because the racist regime of South Africa has utilized the bantustans as tools of oppression and suppression against the people of South Africa.”[14]

The Bantustans were systematically designed to confine the socio-economic mobility of Black people and ensure that Black people remained a permanent underclass and cheap labor source for white people. By any objective standard, the Israeli “defense”  force should be classified as a hate group for policing the bantustans of apartheid, South Africa.

The ADL is upset that Ms. Mallory attended a Nation of Islam event, an organization whose members are forbidden to carry weapons—even a pen knife. In contrast, Peres provided apartheid South Africa with brutal weapons used to kill Black people.

A CIA memo titled,” Israel’s relationship with Apartheid, South Africa,” revealed that Israel under Peres’ leadership provided apartheid, South Africa with piloted reconnaissance drones, gail assault rifles, 155m howizers, kits and the Israeli defense force provided technical assistance to modernize apartheid South Africa’s mirage 3 fighter aircraft. Israel also provided riot control equipment including gas masks and tear gas training program to apartheid South Africa. [15] These weapons were utilized to kill Black people.

The Nation of Islam is currently characterized by the ADL as a, “hate group” despite a lack of history of actual hate crimes. In contrast, the Israeli defense force, whom the ADL is affiliated with, has a documented and undeniable history of facilitating state terrorism against Black people.

During the height of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa,  Lekgau Mathabane, the head of Soweto’s Committee of Ten, an anti-apartheid  civil rights organization, proclaimed, “A friend of the South Africa government cannot be a friend of the Black…. Israel also supplies arms to South Africa and South Africa uses those arms for killing Black people and even children three years old. You don’t  expect any Black person to be happy with that type of thing.” [16]

Why is it acceptable for Foxman to snap photos with Peres but a Ms. Mallory instagram post with Minister Farrakhan results in a national uproar? Given the anti-Black violence of the israeli military,  the ADL’s decision to promote the Israeli defense force is far worse and worthy of condemnation than Ms. Mallory’s decision to attend a Nation of Islam event.  

Anti-racist, activist, Tim Wise stated, “Perhaps when white folks begin to show as much concern for the bigoted statements and, more to the point, murderous actions of white political leaders as we show over the statements of Louis Farrakhan, then we’ll deserve to be taken seriously in this thing we call a ‘national dialogue on race’.” [17]

When Will the ADL condemn, the Anti-Black Zionists?

Another immense double standard was revealed when Chief Rabbi of Israel, Yitzhak Yosef, referred to Black people as, “Monkeys.”[18]  The characterization of Black people as monkeys, is no light matter, it is rooted in Black people being portrayed as subhuman, and it is the very ideology that rationalized colonialism and the enslavement of Black people.

Yet, the most the ADL did was issue a watered down tweet claiming it was, “racially charged”, as opposed to explicitly anti-Black. [19]  There were no calls for any particular individuals who in the audience who attended the speech to resign from their places of employment. Moreover, the ADL has devoted a significantly larger amount of tweets indicting Minister Farrakhan compared to one watered down version condemnation of Rabbi Yitzhak. There was not even a call nor pressure by the ADL to have Rabbi Yitzhak step down from his position as chief rabbi of Israel.

Israeli Prime Minister, Netanyahu with the chief Rabbi of Israel who has called Black people,”monkeys.” When will the ADL pressure Netanyahu to resign for his association with a racist?


While Zionist Lobby groups have called for Senator Maxine Waters to resign for a video showing her warmly embracing Minister Farrakhan, there have been no calls for Netanyahu to step down as Israeli prime minister for photographs showing him shaking hands with the anti Black Rabbi, Yizhak Yosef.

The reality of the Anti-Black Zionists

The anti-Black zionist groups such as the ADL place the state of Israel over Black lives. Given the ADL’s role in supporting apartheid, in South Africa [20], it is not to be taken seriously as a civil rights organizations. The ADL has no authority to tell Ms. Mallory or any other Black leader who they can associate with.  Instead of focusing on her decision to attend a speech by Minister Farrakhan and stalking her social media for Minister Farrakhan photos, the ADL should be seeking forgiveness and atonement from the Black community for their complicity in being anti-Black.


[1] (2018). Women’s March Organizers Accused Of Anti-Semitism—Again. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Mar. 2018].


[2] IBID


[3]  “Women’s March Leaders Refuse to Condemn Farrakhan after Antisemitic Speec.” The Jerusalem Post |, 4 Mar. 2018,


[4] The Israeli Connection: Whom Israel Arms and why By Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi, pg. 63.


[5]   “The Tall Assassin Sparks New Interest in Apartheid Atrocities.” Penguin SA @ Sunday Times Books LIVE,


[6] Presentation of the ADL Distinguished Statesman Award to Shimon Peres.” Anti-Defamation League,

[7] IBID


[8] Middleton, Drew. “SOUTH AFRICA NEEDS MORE ARMS, ISRAELI SAYS.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 14 Dec. 1981,


[9] Polakow-Suransky, Sasha. The Unspoken Alliance: Israel’s Secret Relationship With Apartheid South Africa. Vintage Books, 2011. 209

[10] Polakow-Suransky, Sasha. The Unspoken Alliance: Israel’s Secret Relationship With Apartheid South Africa. Vintage Books, 2011. 234

[11] Polakow-Suransky, Sasha. The Unspoken Alliance: Israel’s Secret Relationship With Apartheid South Africa. Vintage Books, 2011. 209


[12] IBID

[13] “National Counter-Terrorism Seminar in Israel.” Anti-Defamation League,

[14]   Special Reports of the Special Committee Against Apartheid: Recent developments concerning relations between Israel and South Africa.

[15]   Israel’s Relationship With South Africa,


[16] Polakow-Suransky, Sasha. The Unspoken Alliance: Israel’s Secret Relationship With Apartheid South Africa. Vintage Books, 2011. 187.


[17] “Farrakhan Is Not the Problem: The Arrogance and Absurdity of America’s Racial Litmus Test.” Tim Wise, 24 Aug. 2010,


[18] Osborne, Samuel. “Israeli Chief Rabbi Calls Black People ‘Monkeys’.” The Independent, Independent Digital News and Media, 22 Mar. 2018,


[19] IBID


[20]  Polakow-Suransky, Sasha. The Unspoken Alliance: Israel’s Secret Relationship With Apartheid South Africa. Vintage Books, 2011. 209


The Black Holocaust: 3 Racist Courtroom Decisions Relevant Today

American laws have historically been used to reinforce white supremacy and further the subjugation of Black people. In this article, Hakeem Muhammad documents several  horrendous court decision that set forth the precedent of legalizing the oppression of Black people.

Celia Vs. State Of Missouri

State of Missouri v. Celia, a Slave was a murder trial that took place in 1855. Celia’s slave master, Robert Newsom  repeatedly raped  her. One day,  Newson came into the cabin where Celia lived and made sexual advances. Celia rejected his sexual advances but Newson persisted. In response, Celia took a stick and hit him. Newsom tried to grab her and she continued to hit him with the stick eventually killing him.  Afterwards, Celia was brought up on murder charges and the court determined that Celia could not plead self defense. The court held that white slave masters had a right to rape their Black slaves and slaves could not resist. Sadiya Hartman, in Scenes of Subjection  writes that the court indicated, The enslaved could neither give nor refuse consent, nor offer reasonable resistance, yet they were criminally responsible and liable.” With a guilty verdict for murder, Celia would be hanged for her “crime.”


North Carolina v. Mann


In the case of North Carolina vs Mann, John Mann brutally lashed his slave Lydia. While being lashed, Lydia attempted to escape, whereupon Mann shot and wounded her. John Mann was indicted for assault and battery, the court dismissed the charges and Judge Ruffin declared, “The power of the master must be absolute, to render the submission of the slave perfect..” Judge Ruffin posits a “slippery slope’ argument stating that if white slave masters can be brought up on charges for shooting slaves, they could potentially be brought up on charges for any form of abuse, and that this would defeat the very essence of slavery.   In light of John Mann shooting a black woman, the court declared,”There is no remedy.”   

   Dred Scott Decision vs. Samford

In the case of  Dred Scott vs. Samford, Dred Scott freed for his from from slavery. His master, Scott Emerson, purchased him in a slave state of St. Louis, Missouri and subsequently moved to Illinois which had prohibited slavery in its territories. Dred Scott would sue for his freedom  and the question had hand was, did Dred Scott’s transfer to a free that entitle him to freedom. Supreme Court Justice, Roger B. Taney ruled that Blacks were,“regarded as beings of an inferior order” and had “no rights which the white man was bound to respect.”  The  court further ruled that Black people did not even have standing to bring a suit in court.


About: Hakeem Muhammad is a Black Freedom Fighter and every  racist White Settler Colonist’s worse nightmare.

Who taught you to hate yourself? (Political Comic)


After studying “Islam” in the white supremacist proxy state of  Saudi Arabia, Toby Muhammad returns to the United States on a determined mission to ensure Black American Muslims replace their forks with their fingers and their polos for Middle Eastern thobes.  Toby  will not stop until all Black Muslims are Arabized and Islam is completely detached from the Black Liberation struggle completely.



Though African-Americans are already divided due to the syndrome of Willie Lynch with hostilities between light skinned first dark skinned; male vs. female, Toby is determined to create further division by  introducing  to newly forming black Muslims communities medieval Islamic theological and juridical  debates and educate all  black Muslims on all  the deviations of Islamic scholars from the past to the present. Black folks used to ride on the back of the bus but if Toby is not stopped soon they could very will be riding on the back of the camel.

Can Toby be stopped?

Are you a Black Muslim who wants to stand up for the future of Islam in Black America?

       Do you want to Fight Toby Muhammad?

1)Follow the official Muslim Empowerment Institute Facebook page.

2) Subscribe to  Patheos’s Truth To Power. 

3) Purchase,”Toby Muhammad: From the Back of the Bus to the Back of the Camel,” August, 1st!




What to the Black Muslim is Your Fourth of July?

Fed up with being subjected to taxation without representation, American settlers revolted against the British Empire.  In commemoration, this July 4th, Americans will be lighting fireworks and celebrating individuals such as George Washington, Patrick Henry,  and Thomas Jefferson as great patriotic revolutionaries instrumental in freeing American citizens from the subjugation of the British Empire.  As a Black Muslim,  I will not be celebrating. Why?

In a comparative analysis of the social political conditions facing Black folks relative to English settlers, Malcolm X taught in his Ballot or the Bullet speech that, “Black people today [are] catching more hell than Patrick Henry ever saw.”  Continuing, Malcolm  X stated very emphatically, “Most of the white Founding Fathers who signed the Declaration of Independence were slave owners themselves.” Indeed, it is George Washington who once sold a Black slave for a mere bottle of rum, liquor and molasses. Thomas Jefferson was known to have abused an enslaved Black woman by the name of Sally Hemmings and  even wrote a document endorsing genocide against Native-Americans. Similarly, Benjamin Franklin in his article, “Remarks concerning the Savages of North America” describes indigenous Americans as barbarians.

Of course, when racism and the “founding fathers” are mentioned, a pass is often given that they were, “products of their time,” and we should seek to take from the good  and “move on.” The problem is, Black folks endured oppression far more horrific than the “founding fathers.”  However, unlike the founding fathers who took necessary actions to fight for their independence and were rewarded; when Black people did similar actions for their freedom, they were persecuted.   Many remain incarcerated as political prisoners and demonized as felons.

In Defense of Black Muslim Political Prisoners

The great Black freedom fighter, Assata Shakur, once said, “Because of Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X, the Muslim influence over our [Black]  struggle has been very strong.”  This is the legacy of Islam among the descendants of enslaved Africans.  Islam has existed as a momentous force that motivated Black folk  to seek freedom for themselves outside the confines of liberalism

Describing a fellow Black Panther Party member, Kamau Sadiki, Assata writes,  “He had been a Muslim for some time and was deep into it.”  As Assata describes her struggle to grapple with the theological problem of evil, as to how an all-Knowing, All Powerful God could permit Black suffering, she explains, “Kamau argued that Islam was a just religion, opposed to oppression[…]A true Muslim is a true revolutionary.” In the tradition of Malcolm X, in Kamau Sadiki’s analysis, to be a Muslim entailed a commitment to revolution to alleviate the suffering of Black people.  Kamau Sadiki is currently serving a life sentence for his refusal to assist the U.S government’s attempt to recapture Assata Shakur.

Similarly, former political prisoner Safiya Bukhari wrote that,“I became a Muslim(one who submits to the will of Allah) while in the Black Panther Party.””   As a member of the Black Panther Party For Self Defense she struggled against structural racism and would be unjustly incarcerated for doing so. ” Assata Shakur said of Safiya Bukhari,  She was a warrior-woman who did everything she could to free her people and to free political prisoners.” It would even be a Muslim,  Sekou Mgobogi Abdullah Odinga, who would be charged for orchestrating Assata Shakur’s escape from prison.  Odinga writes, “They called the liberation of Assata Shakur kidnapping because jail-breaking was not a federal charge.”  

After serving 30 long years in prison, a paroled Sekou Odinga, still strong in his Islamic faith said, “I believe that al-Islam as taught by the Koran and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad(A.S) is the best  organized system to free new Afrikan people and build the New Afrikan Nation.”  The Islamic agenda of Black liberation of Odinga traces its origins to Malcolm X. Odinga writes, “The teachings of Malcolm X, who was then with the Nation of Islam, became a big influence on me at that time. “

Black Muslims, should not be shy about honoring and openly celebrating  their revolutionaries and  freedom fighters who continued the Islamic legacy of Malcolm X because these Black Muslims actually fought for a  noble cause.  Malcolm X taught us,”“If you’re not careful, the newspapers will have you hating the people who are being oppressed, and loving the people who are doing the oppressing.” In fact, it is these Muslims, from Kamau, Safiya, to Sekou, who are the true heirs of Malcolm X’s Islamic struggle for Black freedom. We should not believe media propaganda seeking to demonize them and should work to free them. 

There are many more Black Muslim  current and past political prisoners whose only “crime” was that they struggled for the freedom of Black people in a white supremacist world.  

European-Americans constantly laud individuals such as George Washington, Patrick Henry,  and Thomas Jefferson who declared independence under conditions that pale compared to the oppressive environments Black people continue to face, on land which they usurped from indigenous Natives.   They even have the audacity to have holidays in honor of individuals who have no redeeming qualities such Christopher Columbus who  actually killed native Americans  and even used  their carcasses  as dog food.

 Why then, should we be shy or even remotely apprehensive about honoring and publically revering truly heroic and noble  individuals who became political prisoners?   Malcolm X taught that Black Americans were facing more oppression in the United States than Patrick Henry and the”Founding Father”s ever endured when they declared independence from Britain. We must honor, respect, and continue to fight for the freedom of all of our political prisoners.

fredrickdouglasPointing out the hypocrisy between the enslavement of Black people and July, 4th, Frederick Douglass once asked, “What, to the American slave, is your 4th of July?” I answer: a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. “ I similarly ask: Oh America:  What to the Black Muslim, is your fourth of July? Without utter hypocrisy, what makes George Washington, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson “freedom-fighters” for the extra-judicial action they took against the British Empire  in the American revolution but   Black folks such as Sekou Odinga, Safiya Bukhari, and  Assata Shakur, Albert “Nuh” Washington, Kamau Sadiki, Imam Jamil Al-Amin, and Jalil Abdul Muntaqin,  considered “Criminals” for the extra-judicial actions they allegedly took  for the freedom of Black people?

With political prisoners still behind bars,  former political prisoners not receiving a dime in reparations for their unjust incarceration, and with these aforementioned Black Muslims lambasted as  “criminals” instead of being honored as great  revolutionaries, the 4th of July celebrations are just as fraudulent and, hypocritical as when Frederick Douglas gave his historical address in 1852.

The Black Power Politics of Malcolm X

Sapelo Square

By Hakeem Muhammad

Throughout his life, Malcolm X’s political and theological views constantly evolved.  However,  several core elements never changed. One was his recognition of white supremacy as a global political system that had to be vehemently opposed.  Malcolm explained, “The economy, the politics, the civil life of America is controlled by the white man.”  Political scientist Charles Mills advances this analysis; the United States is often falsely conceived of as a raceless liberal democracy instead of what it actually is: a white supremacist state.

malcom-1Malcolm X, in his autobiography, explains that this political arrangement had Black people confined to ghettos, living for mere survival, and unable to aspire to higher ambitions in life. Within these ghettos, Blacks were subjected to unbearable living conditions.   He lamented that many of his childhood friends had the potential to be great mathematicians or scientists but were instead victims of the white man’s…

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Civil Rights Legislation Did Not End Structural Racism.

The civil rights movement is often romanticized as having been victorious; the mainstream public discourse purports that racism, as a factor oneimpeding black social mobility, is increasingly on the decline. It is claimed that America is coming closer to achieving Dr. Martin Luther King’s dream with each passing day. Such a dangerous myth obfuscates the true plight of African-Americans; the reality is that civil rights legislation proved ineffective in improving the plight of black Americans, and discrimination against African-Americans is ubiquitous throughout all of American society, even in the era of a black President.

two    America is still a segregated society; the masses of blacks are confined to ghettoes, where they are completely ostracized from mainstream American society. Civil rights legislation failed to even put a dent in segregation. When the legislation was passed, white citizens created various neighborhood improvement associations throughout America. Racism was masked under the agenda of protecting property value and maintaining safety in the neighborhood. Neighborhood Improvement Associations actively lobbied the city council to carry out zone restrictions, endeavoring to preserve white racial homogeneity. Strategic boycotts were organized against real estate agents who had the audacity to sell their homes to blacks. Thus, institutional racism would remain an integral part of city planning, all seeking to keep blacks living in a perpetual state of segregation.[i]

African-Americans who made it to the middle class would often seek to escape the narrow confines of ghetto life. Real estate agents would takewhitetenants advantage of these black customers by selling a home in a predominantly white area, yet, subsequently, these white real-estate agents would alert whites in the area that blacks would be moving in; with fear and panic, they would often sell their homes. Poor African-Americans were then targeted, and these same real estate agents would then sell them homes that they could not afford. A cash advance and several months of mortgage would be collected, and after inevitably defaulting, they would be evicted; afterwards, another black family would be subjected to the same process.


segregationThese discriminatory practices, known as blockbusting, ensured that segregation would be maintained despite the passing of civil rights legislation.Douglas S. Massey concluded, “Since the passing of the Fair Housing Act, the level of black-white segregation has hardly changed.” Within these segregated neighborhoods, the educational systems reflect these apartheid-influenced conditions.[ii] A Harvard study on civil rights recently concluded that – even in the 21st century, after the Brown Vs. Board of Education decision – the majority black students were found to not only have attended schools that were in a de facto state of segregation, but they were also found to attend schools that were more likely to be at the bottom of the socio-economic latter with less resources available for students.[iii]


The discrimination in educational opportunities significantly harms equitable access to the job market—a job market in which black candidatesdiscrimination2 are already at a disadvantage for merely having dark skin. The study titled, ‘Are Emily and Brendan More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal?’ concluded that job applicants with more ‘black-sounding’ names were less likely to be called back for an interview than applicants with more ‘white-sounding names,’ even with identical credentials.[iv] A more troubling study from found that white convicts and blacks without a criminal record, with otherwise identical credentials, have an equal opportunity for employment.[v] Such a social reality demonstrates a dire situation for black ex-convicts seeking to improve their lives.





policetortureSuch black convicts would have already been victims of an unjust legal system. Racism pervades the judicial system; blacks are more likely than whites to be stopped by the police and to become victims of police brutality. In court, blacks routinely have poorer representation compared to white defendants; blacks are more likely to receive harsher sentences for the same crimes as whites. Instead of standing firmly for justice, whether an individual is rich or poor, black or white, the report, ‘Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System’ [vi] concluded that, “The source of such disparities is deeper and more systemic than explicit racial discrimination. The United States in effect operates two distinct criminal justice systems: one for wealthy people and another for poor people and minorities.” As a result of these discriminatory practices, America incarcerates its populations at rates that surpass all other nations, and the majority of these prisoners are black, Latino, or a member of other minority communities.

Yet, the discrimination against black people in the judicial structure is part of a broader problem that seeks to feed the prison industrial complex. The apartheid prison system is becoming an increasingly important factor in the U.S. economy, with the government issuing out private contracts to construct prisons. The federal prison industry (UNICOR), which is owned by the U.S. government, even utiliprisionlaborzes the labor of prisoners to produce miscellaneous goods, including solar panels. Furthermore, many mainstream corporations, such as Microsoft, Boeing, IBM, and Texas Instruments, take advantage of this prison labor. Merrill Lynch has made heavy profits from investing in prison construction bonds. Eve Goldberg notes:

“Prison labor is like a pot of gold. No strikes. No union organizing. No health benefits, unemployment insurance, or workers’ compensation to pay. No language barriers, as in foreign countries. New leviathan prisons are being built on thousands of eerie acres of factories inside the walls. Prisoners do data entry for Chevron, make telephone reservations for TWA, raise hogs, shovel manure, make circuit boards, limousines.”[vii]

Thus, discrimination continues to be ubiquitous throughout American society, from housing, employment, and education. Civil rights chiefkeeffgbelegislation merely removed the overt signs of racism, such as “No blacks allowed” signs, but it did not mitigate the everyday practices of racism which manifests in the blockbusting, redlining, tactics of real estate agents in housing, the discriminatory predatory loans practices of banks, or court rooms which continue to bequeath harsher sentences to black offenders. At large, the black population in America is segregated in ghettos in which the only viable source of employment is the drug economy; they are systematically deprived of quality education; their communities host lethal gang violence; their neighborhoods are often food deserts; and inside these ghettoes many die from preventable diseases.


Racial discrimination is as pervasive as it was during the ‘60s, the only change being how this racism manifested itself. After years of solidifying anti-black discrimination in every facet of American society, discrimination was able to continue without an overt legal mechanism to support it. Taking all this into account, it is clear that civil rights legislation protected white supremacy by putting an end to the overt manifestation as a recuperative mechanism to give the illusion of equality.

In the next article, we will take a look at how Civil Rights Legislation was passed with the intent to protect white supremacy.



[i] American Apartheid, Segregation and the making of the Underclass by Douglass S. Massey A. Denton


[ii] IBID


[iv] Are Emily and Brendan More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal?,


[v] “Discrimination in Low Wage Labor Markets.”


[vi] Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System,

[vii] Racism matters


A critical look at the South-Side of Chicago

Nearly everyone in Chiraq has friends who are now imprisoned, have been shot, or are now six feet in the ground.  This is a place where people shoot bullets with no regard for life, as if it is some type of video game. The brilliant thing about hip-hop is that it has allows for people at the absolute bottom of the socio-economic ladder, those who resort to selling drugs, violent robberies, and gang-banging to provide food, clothing, and shelter to gain riches and notoriety almost overnight through luxurious record contracts and it has also allowed their stories to be told via album releases and, more recently, YouTube. ‘The Third World Inside of America: A critical Look at the Southside of Chicago’ series will examine the social conditions in Chicago using primarily rapper-created lyrics and images coming, rappers in this area who expose the government’s role in maintaining poverty that in turn allows gang-violence to flourish.

Lil JOJO in the Field

First up is now deceased Rapper Lil JOJO who in his ’Shit Is Real’ song stated that “This shit is real in the field. So I keep the steel. You throw up a L you see how it feel.” Lil JOJO belonged to ‘BRICKSQUAD,’ a faction of the Gangsta Disciples. When he discussed being ‘in the field’ he is referring to selling drugs, being in enemy territory and partaking in the various activities typical of street organizations.  ‘To keep the steel” is to have a gun on you at all times, ready to preform hits if you are confronted by rival gang bangers.

The last line is very interesting, as Chief Keef and Lil Reese often begin their songs stating “Ls up.” This is them vocalizing their gang sign which represents the Lamron Faction of the Black Disciples. Both Black Disciples and Gangsta Disciples go to war over drug territory, but many of the recent shootings have been retaliatory.  In this song, Lil JOJO threatens those who put up Ls, saying that those who dare to put up this sign up will be shot.

In JOJO’s “Put In Work’ track, he further describes his life on a day to day basis, stating that, “I’m counting so much money my fingers hurt. Shooting all these guns now my fingers hurt. You better duck ‘cause these shells hurt… Gang-BANG doing hits.” Indeed, the picture to the left shows LIL JOJO with a wad of cash and the other shows him with automatic weapons. As a participant in the illegal economy, black youth often bring in fast money – but that money comes at a price; through violence gangs must use to defend their enterprise. If anyone attempts to encroach on their territory, they are forced to carry out ‘hits’. To do a hit means to shoot and kill rival streets organizations.  As black youth becomes accustomed to the street market, competition is not carried out in the form of price cuts and ad campaigns. Gang members compete over territory to sell their products and services. With no other source of income, protecting ones block or corner becomes a matter of life and death.

The Root Cause of JOJO’s violent Lyrics

There is no doubt that Lil JOJO’s lyrics were outright violent. Yet, we must examine the structural conditions that contributed to these social conditions. JOJO was from Altgeld Gardens, a predominantly African-American housing project that has the majority of its residents living under the poverty-line. This community was originally built for African-American World War II veterans—the Chicago Housing Authority did not want them to reside in whites areas and thus from its inception ‘Altgeld Gardens’ was designed to be a segregated community. Currently, it is among the lowest income communities in America. [1]

 jojoripeAdditionally, The Chicago Housing Authority constructed the housing without adequate plumbing technology and would not even give this community the benefit of regular garbage disposable services.  This community was essentially neglected. Perhaps more appalling and disgusting is the place that the Chicago Housing Authority decided to build this housing project. [2]

Lil Jojo’s community was built in an area surrounded by 53 toxic waste facilities and 90% of the Chicago’s landfills. It was filled with toxins such as ammonia gas, lead, heavy metals, and xylene and stood surrounded by a chemical waste incinerator. The residents of this area have an extremely high rate of children born with brain tumors; an abnormal number of fetuses in the area were aborted because of brains developing outside of the skull. These social conditions the government is directly responsible for lead to the infant mortality rate sky-rocketing, but children fortunate enough to make it teenage years are disproportionately affected by asthma as a direct result of this toxic waste.[3]

Moreover, since the community was essentially neglected, you can rest assured that any opportunities for employment are slim to none.  The majority of these households were female headed and lived below the poverty line with many of these mothers turning to drugs to help ease the pain that they faced every day.  Many mothers work very hard and seek employment but simply cannot provide for their children which in turn lures black youth to the drug economy to be given a chance to have the things that most other elasticities are given at birth—things such as food and clothing.  Black women also face numerous institutional hurdles- Recent studies indicate that Black women only make 63 cents for every dollar that white males make for equal work[4]. Moreover, as a result of indoctrination from the capitalist media, many youth are very materialistic and want the latest clothes (I.E Jordan’s, POLO, etc.). These are all things that lure black youth into the drug economy which in turn leads to vicious gang wars. These drugs wars are all rooted in poverty and gang members feel like “men” when they defend their turf-because they have no real power over the larger social and political system of America.

The older brother of JOJO had this to say “It was a character and just an image that he was giving, because that image is hot. We’re not from the North Side. We’re not from the nice community. We’re from the ’hood. We’re from where mothafuckas are hungry and ain’t got shit and it’s a matter of whether you’re a nigga that do eat or don’t. The nigga that eat do negative things to get it.”[5]

Indeed, his older brother was correct Jimmy Lovine, the CEO of Interscope whom signed Chief Keef to a multi-million dollar contract (JOJO was seeking the same thing), currently owns stocks in various prison corporations. This means he profits off the imprisonment of black youth. The more black youth in jail, the fatter his pockets get.  In jail, many blacks are forced to work for cheap labor—this is essentially a modern form of slavery.

The sad truth is, many blacks live in social conditions where crime is the only way to have the basic necessities of life– thus, these record labels are able to bring talented black youth from rags to riches almost overnight – but the violent nature of their lyrics and their widespread popularity can only contribute to furthering the prison system  as more black youth begin to act our these images.

Lil Reese

Next is Lil Reese, a Chiraq rapper, who is the right hand man of the now imprisoned rapper Chief Keef. He states that:

I lost so many niggas, turned into a savage.

In real life, no movie shit, bitch we clap.

Where I’m from? Chiraq……..

..300 Normal Spelled Backwards.—Lil Reese

 As stated earlier, many people growing up in Chiraq have lost many friends and relatives from the ensuing gang wars. Lil Reese indicates that he too has been affected by this and states that this is reality, not ‘movie shit.’ He’s done this in efforts to distinguish himself from  your typical studio-gangsters who make idle threats and appear ‘thugish’ in rap videos only to go back to their fancy homes after the video shoot to a full refrigerator and comfortable couches in the suburbs. His phrase ‘turned into a savage’ refers to the mentality that many people in his crew have developed from living in such appalling social conditions. A recent study indicates that black youth in Chiraq who are exposed to such violence develop post-traumatic stress disorders comparable to troops returning home from military combat[7]. However, for these youth, this isn’t ‘post-traumatic’ because this violence is a continuous cycle that takes place in their neighborhood everyday. Further, unlike military troops, these youth never receive visits from psychologists to aid them. As Lil Reese stated, “A body getting dropped everyday – this shit is real.”

A body getting dropped refers to people dying from gunshots. The sad truth is that many youth have absolutely nothing to lose within the confides of the current social system. Indeed, when you watch a Lil Reese video, in his hood you’ll see many shirts displaying “R.I.P.” to the names of various friends and “Free”  to the names of various people locked away. Living in such violent social conditions has a profound impact on the psychology of black youth, this is precisely why after Lil JOJO was shot, Chief Keef responded by saying,“HahahahahhahahahahahahahaahhAAHAHAHAHA” #RichNiggaShit “Its Sad Cuz Dat Nigga Jojo Wanted To Be Jus Like Us #LMAO.”

    The Root Cause of Lil Reese’s Violent Lyrics

Both Chief Keef and Lil Reese grew up in Englewood. They would probably be surprised to hear that their now impoverished and violent community was once predominately white and affluent. Moreover, in addition to being mostly white, it was once a stronghold for the Ku Klux Klan. As America began to integrate and African-Americans entered deep into the Chicago areas—this once predominately white area began organizing violently against the African-American communities. They then formed a neighborhood associations with slogans like: “America for whites, Africa The Only Place for Niggers.”  They then went on to say “We don’t want them, we don’t want to live with them. I think they’re savages.” While these whites portrayed African-Americans as savages, all the behavior that whites partook in to defend against integration were of that very nature. After a rumor that a house in Englewood was going to be purchased by a black family, whites began to carry out bombings, physical assaults, and arson on black residents for simply trying to live their lives. After putting up posters saying “NEGROES INVADING” a bunch of white racists came together starting the “EngleWood Race Riots of 1949”. As African-Americans continued to move in, “a white plight” took place as whites moved to suburban areas, leaving the black community in absolute turmoil, chaos, and social decay[8].

Now, I’ve constantly heard the argument that goes something like this: “Lil Reese was born in 1993, those riots took place in 1949.” As if it had no effect on him.  White people had the benefit of passing wealth to their children who could then pass it on to their children; they also had the luxury of a stable home and other infrastructure. As a result of these race riots, blacks who were affected   were not given the same opportunities nor has the racist system that has been designed to disenfranchise blacks from employment been abolished. These riots and systemic obstacles left the black community in absolute economic turmoil. The poverty that resulted from it allowed the illegal economy to takeover as the number one employer for black youth. Similarly, when peaceful African-Americans first moved to Englewood, a racist of the white, anti-intergrationist stated that” I think they[Blacks] are savages.” Now, over 30 years later Lil Reese embraces this image, stating that “I lost so many niggas, turned into a savage.” Why  else would Lil JOJO, Chief Keef, and Lil Reese all have lyrics basically equating to “gonna get these guns, and I’mma kill these niggas”? The lyrics resemble the rhetoric of white racists of the past. This is all a result of blacks internalizing hatred and racial stereotypes of the society they live in.

1), Derrion Albert Is Not Racist Capitalism’s First or Last Victim

2) Arnold Richard Hirsch, “Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960″, University of Chicago,1998,,M1

3)Working Party on Environmental Performance,

4), 11 Facts About Affirmative Action

5) Chief Keef and Lil Joj0

6),  “I Ain’t Dissing Chief Keef, I’m Dissing Jimmy Iovine”

7)I See Everything Through This Tragedy” February 12, 2012, 11:00 am ET by Alex Kotlowitz

8)Black Literature of Revolutionary Protest from Chicago’s South Side: A Local …

By Michelle Yvonne Gordon,

The Making of Chopper City: Black Life In New-Orleans (Hood Series)

In the public eye, New Orleans is a wonderful place to retreat for Mardi Gras parades; the eager tourists anticipate collecting beads and “Who Dat” souvenirs. Or they come to the Crescent City in anticipation of the annual Jazz-fest, topping their evening off by treating themselves to beignets in the French Quarters. At the heart of Bourbon Street, there are many clubs and bars providing much entertainment to sightseers. This is the New Orleans that attracts tourists far and wide! Yet, beyond these affluent attractions there exists another world that tourists do not dare journey into, and it is colloquially referred to as Chopper City.

The etymological origins of Chopper City are due to one fundamental reality: an AK-47 is needed for survival in these war zones. In Chopper City, there are excruciatingly high levels of poverty, the drug economy is dominant, and black on black violence is omnipresence. City planners do not devote nearly as much time to the well-being of Chopper City  as they do tourist attractions; while driving through streets riddled with potholes, choppers can be heard blasting. The Magnolia rapper Souljah Slim describing the consequences of this dire social neglect in Chopper City proclaims, “M’mma pray for her baby ‘cause I stayed in war.” Black youth are indeed at war, not only with one another, but with outside forces as well.

The declaration of Magnolia artist Lil Wayne which is ”a young nigga screaming f*ck the world,” is often perceived as anti-social; such messages are often why Hip-Hop artists are lambasted throughout the conservative media. Rappers are condemned for conveying negative social messages and embodying every flawed element of urban city culture: ignorant, rowdy, and violent. Yet, this s assertion of Lil Wayne is much deeper that one may suppose, as it demonstrates a fundamental fact about black existence in America: Lil Wayne has no choice but to put his middle finger up to the world; the world that he lives in is anti-black.

Following the Civil War, the black forefathers of the New Orleans artist endured a variety of repressive black code laws which intended to neworleansfreedomandindsolidify a white over black hierarchy. Within this post-plantation slavery period, the police of New Orleans were active Klansman who would terrorize the black community through lynching and even sexual assaults of black women.   Despite the fact that there was no source of employment for blacks, vagrancy laws were passed to prosecute unemployed blacks. These laws built the newly formed convict leasing system by ensuring that blacks would be used as slaves even after the passing of the Emancipation Proclamation. This oppression ensured that whites would continue to benefit from the enslavement of blacks, and continue to amass vast wealth from black suffering.

In 1937, a racial caste system would be enforced by the New Orleans Housing Authority who explicitly established segregated housing for neworlean4blacks, intentionally putting them in areas most susceptible to flooding. Blacks were continuously segregated and their lives were treated as though they were worthless; in the sixties, chemical plants were constructed near black neighborhoods. This would work to ensure that toxic pollution contaminated the air that blacks had no choice but to breathe in. Through lyrics, Lil Wayne states, “Stuck in the hood like they put cement on us,” which is a reality: the planning of New Orleans was structured firmly upon a racist ideology that intended to segregate blacks into impoverished social neighborhoods.

“The presidential double R, call that Ronald Reagan.” Though Lil Wayne is able to enjoy cruising in a Rolls Royce due to the hip hop industry, Reagonomics trickled down and devastated the black community at large. Social services were drastically cut, and the tax code was constructed to favor the wealthy. In the eighties, due to Reagan, the dreaded figure of the “black criminal” emerged within political advertisements. White politicians would chastise black youth as criminals, drug dealers, and rapists and call for ‘law and order’ in order to protect the good, white citizenry. Within New Orleans, whites began settling in Slidell and other suburbs, the local black population would still be in segregated public housing. The wealth never actually did trickle down; instead, as jobs moved out of the inner-city, New Orleans began cutting back on social services. There would be little opportunity for social mobility for black Americans. Describing these hectic times, C- Murder describes his teenage years saying, ”I breaks bread with these baseheads,” indicating he had to sell coke to make ends meet.

poli43The dominant mode of life for black New Orleans residents consisted of selling drugs, evading the police, and going in and out of prison. Eventually, the New Orleans Police Department declared a ‘War on Drugs’ against black youth. C-Murder, growing up in these repressive times, describes ”on the spot money bustin’ out my socks, boy its hot and now these cops on my jock, boy.” Though the drug economy is quite profitable, black youth must successfully evade the police to survive. As Mayor Sidney Barthemely lost control of the Police Department, their increasingly corrupt practices would classify them as nothing more than another gang.

benardhousingPolice would routinely rob drug dealers for quick cash, and even plant drugs on innocent blacks and bring them up on false charges. Police brutality became the norm; black mothers living in housing projects feared their small children would be brutalized by police, thus, even when there was genuine problems in their housing projects, they were hesitant to call the police. The police corruption within the city was so notorious that African-American Marc H. Morial became mayor by campaigning on the platform that he would overhaul the entire department. But, even as a black mayor, the city planning, institutions, and all other facets of New Orleans had been set up to discriminate and oppress African-Americans. This institutionalized racism would not be something that his administration could overcome. The years of discriminatory public housing, years of disenfranchisement, and police repression would concentrate both anti-social behavior and poverty in the black community, and this would be showcased during Hurricane Katrina with helpless blacks drowning in water or stranded on top of roofs begging for help.

In the next article, we will demonstrate how the impact of Hurricane Katrina more severely impacted blacks due to the racist urban planning. We will also take a look at institutionalized racism in the post-Katrina era.


Black Rage in New Orleans: Police Brutality and African Mmerican activism from World War II to Hurricane Katrina by Leonard N Moore

How Do Hurricane Katrina’s Winds Blow?: Racism in 21st-century New Orleans  By Liza Lugo

Analyzing Bill Maher: Liberal White Supremacy

When people think of white supremacy, images of the Ku Klux Klan usually pop into their hands. They regard it as a belief which is now on the fringe, feeling that although maybe a few Neo-Nazis subscribe to it, it is generally an ideology that no longer has any influence on the world. This is a dangerous myth! White supremacy is a globalized political structure and the most destructive political system currently in operation in the world today. Yet, it has been so seeped into the world’s consciousness that many are unaware that it is not in fact the natural way of life.

As an example, in America, the political system, economic system, and judicial system is largely controlled and operated by the descendants of white Europeans—not the Native Americans who were the original inhabitants of the country. This is not normal, nor should it be this way. In Australia, the political, judicial, and economic systems are largely controlled and operated by the descendants of white Europeans—not the Australian aboriginals who were the original inhabitants of the land. This is not normal, nor should it be this way. Even in post-Apartheid South Africa, the descendants of white Europeans enjoy better living standards than the native black population, and control the majority of the economic infrastructure. This is not normal, nor should it be this way.

Additionally, Liberalism and white supremacy are not mutually exclusive and this can be vividly highlighted in the talk show statements of Bill Maher:

“Liberals need to stand up for liberal principles … freedom of speech, freedom to practice any religion you want without fear of violence, freedom to leave a religion, equality for women, equality for minorities. But then when you say in the Muslim world, ‘This is what’s lacking….’”

Bill Maher getting drunk on land stolen from native-americans instead of fulfilling his obligation to fight oppression. White Hedonism exist upon the systemic oppression of black people.

Bill Maher getting drunk on land stolen from native-americans instead of fulfilling his obligation to fight oppression.
White Hedonism exist upon the systemic oppression of black people.

The question for Bill Maher is: why are the original inhabitants of the United States, the Native Americans, a minority within their own land? It’s because of liberals like Thomas Jefferson, who supported the Indian removal act believing that Native Americans should be exterminated. Jefferson’s worldview stemmed from one of the most foundational philosophers of liberalism, John Locke, who invested in companies that partook in the transatlantic slave trade of black Africans.  It is a result of a worldview held by most liberal philosophers in which only whites were humans and thus fit for liberal rights. Yet, After centuries of enslaving Africans and the genocide of Native Americans, Bill Maher now says he believes in “equality for minorities.” What does the liberal notion of equality mean in any real sense? It’s a political abstraction that has no concrete tangible meaning.

To pass anti-discrimination laws after years of exploitation to solidify yourself on the top of the social hierarchy is one thing, but to actually relinquish power, wealth, and infrastructure that was inherited  unjustly is something else completely. No liberal would support any policy that seriously restructured society on a significant level; in fact, Native American thinkers such as Jodi Byrd state that the inclusion of Native Americans within liberalism is a continuance of this cultural genocide, as Native Americans had their own cosmologies and worldviews that were often completely antithetical to liberalism.

The danger behind Bill Maher’s statement is that he now utilizes the inclusion of Native Americans into liberalism(cultural genocide) as a reason to justify violence  against the non-Liberal Muslim World. In a further  interview with an African-American Muslim hip-hop artist, Mos Def, Bill Maher questioned him by stating:

The religion of Islam spread through the sword, spread through oppression. Have you read your history? What happened between 632 to 732 A.D.; 100 years they conquered the whole known world.

This is simply empirically false; no credible historian today can assert that Islam spread through the sword. Just take

Leading Atheist  "thinker"Christopher Hitchens doing what he does not  best: cigarettes and drinking.  European colonial expansion has secured liberal notions of "freedom" exclusively the  white race  which is secured from the oppression of people of color.

European colonial expansion has secured liberal notions of “freedom” granting them exclusively to the white race which is secured from the oppression of people of color. Thus, enabling Leading Atheist “thinker”Christopher Hitchens doing what he does  best: using cigarettes and drinking.

Indonesia, which is home to the world’s largest population of Muslims—there was never any Muslim conquest of Indonesia. Islam spread to that area of the world from commerce and trade. Similarly, in West Africa, Islam spread through trade and commerce—not military conquest. Even more recently, according to the American Muslim council, 42% of Muslims in America are African-American, 24% are South Asian, and 12% are Arab. What Muslim general put a sword to the African-American population and made them undergo forced conversions? What Bill Maher is doing is projecting. Brother Mos Def should have asked Maher what happened in his European history between 1492 until now. Europeans actually came incredibly close to controlling the world.

The above map shows that only a few countries have been spared from European colonialism, and, as you can see, the Muslim/Arab world, Native-Americans, Australian Aboriginals, and Africans, all came under European domination. In fact upon the British-Dutch conquest of South Africa, they established an apartheid regime on their land in which blacks would be incarcerated for a variety of trivial offenses (including being unemployed). Modern day Muslim extremists are mostly a product of European colonialism, and yes they have committed inhumane atrocities—but they have a long, long, long way to go before they even come close to rivaling what Europeans have done and continue to do.

51 Reasons Living in Chicago Ruins Black Life ( Nos. 1 -25)

The article “51 Reasons Living In Chicago Ruins You for Life”  on BuzzFeed has received many hits and much praise. The article is about how the bars, alcohol, pizza, and architecture in Chicago are apparently so great that Chicagoans who have become accustomed to this lavish lifestyle are devastated when they move to other cities that cannot keep up with Chicago’s wonderful standards of living.

The article epitomizes white privilege, focusing on a high standard of living and lavish lifestyle which black Chicagoans have no access to. Moreover, white hedonism and frivolous lifestyles consisting of traveling to “bars that stay open late” where you can “get your beer local,” which are the articles main points, can only be solidified based upon the systemic oppression of black people. My response is 51 reasons that highlight how living in Chicago literally ruins a black person’s life.


                                                                 How Chicago Ruins Black Lives: Police Brutality

  1. Chicago Police Department Commander Jon Burge throughout the ‘70s to early ‘90s terrorized blacks in the South-Side of Chicago.
  2. He rounded up innocent black men and tortured them until they admitted to crimes that they did not commit.
  3. Some of Burge’s techniques included electric shock to the genitals, burning skin with an open flame, cattle prods placed in the anal cavity, and stun guns.
  4. One of Burge’s victims, named Holmes, recounted that Burge began suffocating him while calling him “nigger” repeatedly.

                                                                     Chicago Police Assassination of Black leaders

  1. The Black Panthers provided free breakfast to  black children and sought to challenge police brutality.
  2. The CPD  and the FBI worked together to destroy their efforts by raiding their headquarters.
  3. Commenting on the Raid, FBI Special Agent Gregg York expressed he was upset they he could not kill more “niggers”.

                                                                                    Chicago: A Pioneer in Environmental Racism

  1. Altgeld Gardens was built bas a segregated residential area for black people in the ‘50s.
  2. The community is surrounded by  chemical waste incinerators & abandoned dumps filled with toxic waste.
  3. As a result, the infant mortality rate in Altgeld Garden was once 50.6 out of 1,000 live births.

Chicago: Developing innovative Post-Jim Crow Mechanism to Maintain Segregation.

  1. In an empirical study titled “The Prison Boom & Lack of Black Progress,” University of Chicago economists Neal and Rick, after examining black and white income inequality, unemployment rates, and the increasing number of black men in Chicago who are in prison, concluded: “the Great Recession has left most black men in a position relative to white men that is really no better than the position they occupied only a few years after the Civil Rights Act of 1965.”
  2. In a study of the impact of the Fair Housing Act passed in Chicago to outlaw racial discrimination, sociologist Douglass S. Massey notes that, due to practices such as redlining, racial steering, and block-busting that developed in the Post-Jim Crow era, “the level of black-white segregation has hardly changed.”
  3.  In fact, if current trends continue, blacks in Chicago’s south and westside neighborhoods will still be de facto segregated groups for decades into the future.
  4. Between 1967 and 1982, nearly 50% of Chicago’s manufacturing jobs were eliminated as companies relocated overseas, leading to mass unemployment in the black community.
  5. John M. Hagedorn writes, “The conditions in Chicago’s poorest neighborhoods came to resemble impoverished Third World countries, and police harassment was ever-present.”

Discrimination in Education

  1.  From its inception, the schooling set aside for blacks has been subpar, lacked basic infrastructure, received significantly less funding than white schools, and suffered unbearably overcrowded.
  2. Benjamin Willis, one of the earliest superintendents of this city, proudly refused to comply with the Brown vs. Board of Education decision.
  3. James Redmond, the successor to Benjamin Willis, sought to comply with the Brown vs. Board decision; he had plans to send black students to all-white schools and, as result of this, was met with protests by violent white mob groups.
  4. Thus, James Redmond’s plan to integrate schools never materialized, and, to appease any whites, he never enforced it.
  5. After desegregation efforts, the percentage of whites attending Chicago’s public schools dropped by 75% as white parents began to take their children out of these schools and placed them into suburban schools which were still segregated or private schools.
  6.  Today, Chicago schools are still segregated. A study by the NAACP found that Chicago public schools are still in a de facto state of segregation.
  7. Four out of every five black students would have to transfer schools in order to be adequately integrated in Chicago’s school system.
  8. According to the Chicago Teachers Union, the schools in Chicago were “only a few percentage points from an experience of total apartheid.”
  9. Only 3 out of 100 blacks from Chicago’s public schools will have gone on to obtain a bachelor’s degree from an accredited university.
  10. The state of Illinois has 20,000 more black males in its state’s prisons than are enrolled in its public state universities

Click Here For Bibliography.  Part Two Coming Soon.