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The Prayer at The Trial of Assata Shakur

“The kourtroom was packed every day with sisters and brother who had come to watch the circus. People from all over the Black community dropped by. The Muslim sisters and brothers brought their pray rugs and broke out into prayer in the hallway of the courthouse. It was as if Black folks had just taken over the kourtroom, letting every know that they were watching.” —  Assata Shakur

Apartheid in Milwaukee: The Third World Inside America (The Hood Series)

 

Black Life in Milwaukee: The Third World Inside of America 

Surrounded in scenery of dilapidated houses, food and liquor stores;  crumbling infrastructure vandalized by RIP signs that pay tribute to the young victims of fratricidal gang warfare, Milwaukee rapper Gwapo Chapo from the neighborhood of Atkinson Ave spits  that his “Trynna Make it Out The Hood.”Chap’s lyrics represents a plea to transcend a life in wretched social conditions surrounded by economic deprivation, unemployment, poverty, gun violence, drug trafficking, high levels of infant mortality, food deserts, substandard education systems, dilapidated unaffordable housing, police brutality and continued forays with the criminal (in)justice system. To fully understand these wretched conditions that have imposed on black communities requires an examination of history which according to Malcolm X “is best qualified to reward our research.

A Historical Analysis of the Creation of Milwaukee’s Hoods 

In the city of Milwaukee, segregationist city planners placed African-Americans in The North Side  isolated from mainstream White America. In the early 20th century, most African Americans did not migrate to Milwaukee instead venturing to other cities such as Chicago and Detroit. After WWII, Milwaukee began to show a significant increase in its black population. As this happened, redlining and racial covenants only allowed African Americans to purchase homes in the inner city NorthSide “core” that was only limited to a small number of blocks.

As black leaders such as Vel Phillips protested these laws, the city later rioted in August of 1967 forcing a standoff between the black community and its allies and the European immigrant community along with the predominantly white city government. After the assassination of MLK, the Fair Housing Act was passed and racial covenants were declared unconstitutional.

Over the period of the next 50 years, Milwaukee’s black population increased to 40% due to migration from Mississippi and Chicago while a combination of mortgage discrimination, redlining, reverse redlining and white flight has lead the city to become more segregated with a common stereotype in the city “Black people live on the North Side, Latinos on the Southside and White people on the Eastside”. The inner core that black people were once confined to has now expanded in areas in which they were not able to purchase homes in.

Gentrification and Black Annihilation 

For those white people that don’t live in the suburbs of Milwaukee or the outskirts of the city such as West Allis or Greenfield Wisconsin, the main enclave is typically the East Side that is known as the most prosperous part of the city, home to numerous restaurants, tourist attractions, festivals, and art centers.

There is concern the building of the Bucks arena and street car is intended to displace many black communities near Downtown, in order to attract a more wealthier white populace. Riverwest and Harambee , two diverse communities in the Northeast have faced threat of gentrification.

African Americans were and are strategically placed in the region of the city known as “The North Side” 12 of the cities 14 most economically distressed zip codes have at least a population of 50% African Americans with the other two being primarily Hispanic.

Despite the passage of the Fair Housing Act, Milwaukee remains a hyper-segregated city that is reminiscent of a Third World Colony in many areas. Just recently it has been discovered that over 100,000 homes in the city have a problem with lead pipes and soil, primarily in near North Side zipcodes. 

Black Life in the Northside 

The North Side is known for its high levels of economic deprivation, unemployment, poverty, gun violence, drug trafficking, infant mortality, substandard education systems, dilapidated unaffordable housing,  forays with the criminal justice system, police brutality, food deserts, lack of mental health clinics, payday loan stores, and many more. It is not an exaggeration to say that every institution in Milwaukee has failed black people and is not designed for social mobility let alone humanity.

“There’s a difference in Milwaukee and Wisconsin, the state put us up for adoption” – For decades there has been an antagonistic relationship between Milwaukee and the state of Wisconsin. Blacks in Milwaukee were systematically denied from gaining mortgages and home loans to live in suburbs in Wisconsin leaving suburbs such as Waukesha, Wauwatosa and others to be almost exclusively white. Even on a personal note, these areas are often met with much social hostility when black people venture there whether it be through traffic stops, profiling at stores, etc. On a political level the GOP State Legislature at Governor Scott Walker has continued a negative relationship with Milwaukee to appeal to his Republican base. Through the usage of dog whistle politics, tough on crime measures, voting ID laws, disinvestment for public education, union busting, etc Scott Walker under the dominion of the Koch Brothers has worked tirelessly to further an environment that only benefits the elites and bigots of Wisconsin

Drug Trafficking to Prison 

“The illegal drug trade is the common way in the City of Milwaukee’s African American community of providing the basic financial needs of many residents, and its mere presence is creating instability that is directly related to our violent crime statistics.” said Alderman Joe Davis from Milwaukee

After the deindustrialization that occurred in the 1970s and 80s, the jobless rate for African American males in the city rose to over 50%. With the heroin and crack epidemic emerging, along with migrations from Chicago gangs such as the Gangster Disciples, Vice Lords, and Latin Kings to name a few, the drug economy became one of the predominant sources of income in many of Milwaukee’s oppressed neighborhoods. With it of course is the violence that followed.

Today in Milwaukee while open air drug markets are still in abundance another form of drug dealing that has emerged is that of mobile drug dealing in which dealers use cars with tinted windows that are either stolen or rented to make drug deals all over the city. These transactions are made possible through the use of flip phones (trap phones) that are cheap and not easily detectable by the police, that allows the dealer to communicate with his customer. Due to Milwaukee’s proximity to plentiful predominantly white suburbs, the opioid epidemic has become extremely lucrative with heroin now replacing crack cocaine once again.

In the midst of this, Chapo states that his “tired of getting locked up.” For Black people in Milwaukee, constant forays with the criminal (in)justice system is a frequent reality. A study from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee discovered that Wisconsin’s incarceration rates for Black males was double that of America’s  national average.  In particular, 1 of 8 Black men of working age in Milwaukee County has served some time in the state’s correctional facilities at some point in their lives. 

It is no surprise that Milwaukee is hailed as one of the worst cities for Black people in the United States; a city that has profiled and tazed one of its own basketball players. For African Americans and other oppressed populations in Milwaukee such as Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans, the do for self messages of the Organization For Afro-American Unity, Muslim Mosque Incorporated, Black Liberation Army,  The Nation Of Islam, The Uhuru Movement, and The Black Panther Party must be heeded in the sense that black people will have to fight at all cost against racism and capitalism along with adhering to the philosophies of self determination and political, social and economic control of our communities.

Black people in Milwaukee must begin to develop unity and end the social dysfunction that is awry so that radical strategies can be developed to solve these complex issues. The problems in Milwaukee and other cities across the country will not be solved by just politicians or college educated youth from these communities with reformist poltiics. It will require the entire community from the grandma on the block to community activists to even the street soldiers. The struggle in Milwaukee is more than laws and rights as Americans. It’s a struggle for black people to be recognized as humans and not seeds for exploitation and degradation.

Authors:

An Islamic Critique of Neo-Liberal Economic Development In Burkina Faso

In his final sermon (McIntire, 2008), the Prophet Muhammad stated that “Allah has forbidden you to take usury … you shall neither inflict nor suffer any inequity.” The Prophet of Islam went on to say, “A white has no superiority over a black” (Mcltnire, 2008). In violation of this, I argue the IMF’s Structural Adjustment Program is based upon utilizing usury to secure an economic order in which whites have superiority over blacks in the world’s economic affairs, and that the neo-liberal economic system solidifies a system of white supremacy.

The Qur’an (2:276) mandates that “Allah will deprive usury of all blessing, but will give increase for deeds of charity.” And that “wealth may not circulate only among those of you who are rich(59:7).” In addition to positing an Islamic critique of the contemporary international economic system, this article will argue that the Islamic principles of Banking and Finance are a more ethical and humane alternative to the conventional secular western banking system. I argue that neo-liberal theories governing economics are materialistic and will never benefit Africans; they operate to secure a system of white supremacy in the world’s economic affairs. Rather, what is needed to bring harmony back to Africa is the abandonment of neo-liberal influence and a re-emergence of Islamic economic thought.

Walter Rodney in how European Underdeveloped Africa demonstrates exactly how European powers underdeveloped Africa and benefited from a parasitic economic relationship. According to Rodney, “Islamic Universities suffered because colonialism deprived them of the economic base which previously gave them support. As with so many other aspects of African life, what the colonialists put in must be weighed against what they halted and what they destroyed in both real and potential terms. Colonization has led to a decline in Islamic economic thought, yet indigenous African-Islamic economic thought can be found in the works of Uthman Dan Fodio, Askia Muhammad, and Al-Magadi. Islahi (2008) does an analysis on indigenous African-Islamic economic thought in which he states that Uthman Dan Fodio “advocates foundation of an economic system based on values such as justice.”

British Colonialism put an end to the society established by Uthman Dan Fodio, and with the Eurocentric educational system there has been a decline in African-Islamic economic thought; neo-liberal theories of economics are the prevailing model that the IMF and World Bank operate in Africa. These neo-liberal capitalist theories concerning development have been a disaster for Africa.  These neo-liberal theories are simply false and will not benefit Africa.

According to Zaham (2012), ”The founders of Islamic Economics had a vision of a superior and spiritual alternative to the injustices and exploitation of materialistic western systems.” This case study will examine the impact that the Structural Adjustment Program and liberalization of Burkina Faso’s economy has upon the people from an Islamic theoretical framework. It will provide a contrast between the reforms under Thomas Sankara and the IMF, and neo-liberal reforms speared-headed by his successor, Blaise Compaore. Was the World Bank’s “Poverty Reduction” program at all effective in reducing poverty in comparison to the reforms of Sankara?

White Capitalist Exploitation of Africa

 Bond(2006) critiques both the world bank and IMF. Bond(2006) argues that the World Bank work to maintain Africa in a perpetual state of poverty. Some of these schemes range from the outright theft and looting of resources by Western corporations in the Congo to clever and sophisticated programs, such as the structural adjustment program.  Bond(2006) notes that Tanzania is in debt by $7.5 billion, and Dar Es Salam’s water was privatized as a condition for the structural adjustment program and not many poor people lack access.  The author concludes that “Africa is poor, ultimately, because its economy and society have been ravaged by international capital as well as by local elites who are often propped up by foreign powers.” Furthermore,  Bond(2006) concludes that the economic relationship of the IMF and World Bank to that of Africa is one of exploitation.  

Payer(1982) gives a broad overview of the history of the World Bank and the IMF, exposing how it has largely been dominated by the United States of America. Payer(1982) ultimately concludes that their programs benefit the wealthy and that there is a major impossibility in alleviating poverty from a neo-liberal framework.  In a much more recent analysis, Ndikumana (2011) found that African nations seeking aid from the IMF are given loans with various one-sided stipulations. The interest rates are significantly higher than comparable loans, and, following the loan stipulations, various resources of the nations who cannot pay the loans back are privatized by Western corporations. The impact is that much of the resources and wealth of African nations are not in the hands of Africans themselves, but Western corporations; moreover, the high interest rates keep African nations locked in a cycle of debt

.Due to the high interest rates, African nations have actually repaid the IMF, World Bank, and Western governments significantly more money than was originally borrowed. As a direct result, the author, Ndikumana(2011), emphasizes that “contrary to the popular perception of Africa being a drain on the financial resources of the West, the continent is actually a net creditor to the rest of the world.” Moreover, the privatization of the resources of Sub-Saharan Africa by Western corporation results in wealth being increasingly concentrated in Western elites, outlining a major discrepancy.

An Islamic Analysis of Burkina Faso’s Economic Development

 

Black Legal Talk: Justice For Tulsa’s Massacre Survivors.

 

Black Legal Talk is an educational podcast hosted by law student Hakeem Muhammad. Black Legal Talk serves as an educational apparatus on legal issues impacting Black communities. In this episode of Black Legal Talk, “Justice For Survivors of The Tulsa Massacre,” Hakeem Muhammad spoke with Northeastern law student Ezinne Adi about legal obstacles facing Black folks seeking to be compensated after white racists destroyed their homes, property, and livelihood in a massacre they carried out in Greenwood Tulsa aka Black Wall Street.

Chicago’s Educational Crisis: A Product of Institutional Racism

closingschoolsIn 2013, Rahm Emanuel facilitated the closing of 49 Chicago Public schools. Emanuel insisted that it would be to the benefit of Chicago’s mostly African-American students. However, a recent study indicated that while the closing of schools destabilized students there was no improvement in academic performance of students

Today, Chicago Public Schools are in a state of absolute decay. The predominately low-income black students are given a lackluster education in a substandard environment that is infamous for its low college admission rates and low graduation rates. When one examines the deteriorating conditions of these schools—crinkled textbooks with dirty pages, decrepit computers with dusty keyboards, and overbearing security guards who occupy the halls—the truth begins to ring loud and clear: the purpose of the educational system in Chicago is not to enrich the minds of blacks; it is to entrap them in a world of white hegemony, oppression and poverty. It is to leave black students exploited, degraded, and powerless.

This disgusting history of second-rate education in the black community is not a new phenomenon, nor is it a product of mere incompetence amongst the school board. It is on purpose: an exemplification of institutionalized racism, a product of America’s social structure of white supremacy. America has consistently denied its black population a quality education.  From those brutal slave days when the limbs of black people were savagely amputated for simply reading a book to the repressive days of the present when blacks in the inner city are shoved into schools that have armed police patrolling the hallways. Even after Brown v. Board of Education, the schools in Chicago are still separate and still unequal. The government has made no tangible effort to enforce this; the Supreme Court and Chicago Public Schools continue to oppress blacks.

When blacks first came to Chicago during the great migration as a result of racist discriminatory laws and white terrorism, they were forced into the south side, which became known as the “Black Belt.” This area was treated with inconceivable neglect by the government. The houses blacks were forced to live in lacked basic plumbing and did not even receive the benefit of regular garbage disposal services.  The schools built for black students in this area lacked basic infrastructure, received significantly less funding than white schools,  and were unbearably overcrowded.   Benjamin Willis, one of the earliest superintendents of this city, was a vicious racist.  He proudly refused to comply with the Brown v. Board of Education decision.

Eventually, black students begin to protest these intolerable clogged conditions in their schools.  Meanwhile, on the other side of the world, predominately white schools had empty seats and  plenty of room; plenty of schools had plenty of space. Since black schools were overcrowded and white schools had plenty of empty space, the simple decision would have been for white schools to take in black students in compliance with the Brown v. Board of Education decision.

Instead, Benjamin Willis ordered the creation of  portable trailer-like rooms outside already decrepit schools to mitigate the crowding.  Black students were not satisfied with these portable classrooms and decided to protest. This issue came to the attention of Dr. Martin Luther King, who decided to stage a march challenging inequality in Chicago. As a result of these protests, the federal government threatened to withdraw funding if Chicago failed to comply with the Brown v. Board of Education ruling.  Mayor  Richard Daley, the same racist who, in his youth, led attacks against the black community, was able to make inside deals and bribe his way out of  it to maintain segregation and inequality.  Today, Chicago Public Schools are still in a segregated state.

In 2000, half of African-American students attended schools that did not have a single white person enrolled, and 274 schools were 90% or more black.  This statistic led the Chicago Teachers Union to say that “Chicago Public Schools… [are] only a few percentage points from an experience of total apartheid.” 

Illinois has 20,000 more black males languishing away in its state prisons than enrolled in its public universities.   

Chiraq’s Child Soldiers & The Story of Yummy.

 

Think back to when you were nine years old. At this age, most kids in America are able yummyrobertsaniderto live care free, jovial lives contemplating about what cool new gadget they want from Santa for Christmas. For African-Americans in urban areas throughout America, their experience is totally different. When Robert ‘Yummy’ Sandifer was only nine years old, he had already been in and out of jail multiple times, deeply involved in the South Chicago street life, committing a series of armed robberies and arsons.

While most kids during this time period were trading Pokemon cards, Yummy was trading drugs for profit, committing burglaries and breaking into houses.

Yummy, hadn’t even reached his teenage years before he began carrying out murders for his local gangs. Worse yet, he didn’t even live to reach his teenage years.

At 4’6, he was armed with loaded guns and not even remotely afraid to use them. He received the nickname ‘Yummy’ due to his love for junk food.  He lived his life as a drug dealer causing terror in his community by breaking into houses and stealing cars. Before reaching 5-feet tall, he was already putting people 6 feet in the ground. He committed recorded 23 felonies and 5 misdemeanors while carrying out his missions for his local gang.  The only picture available of him available of him on the net is a Mugshot—a photo that showcases pain, anguish, and depression. This same face and mentality can also be seen in Chief Keef rap videos.

This should come as no surprise. Both Chief Keef and Yummy are from the same Southside neighborhood in Chicago, and both are members of the Black Disciples. Yummy was killed in 1994, about a year before Chief Keef was born in mid-1995.The same narrative of drug leading, shooting, and criminal activities that are found in many of Chief Keef’s videos and other Hip-Hop lyrics are the only imagery that Yummy knew his entire life.

From uppitynegronetwork.files.wordpress.com

After Yummy shot and killed a fourteen year old, child police went on a manhunt searching relentlessly for him. It was soon discovered that members of his own Black Disciple Gang executed him fearing that he would become a snitch to the police and reveal secrets about their drug trade.

This is what the conditions of poverty fostered by racial segregation produce.

Rapper Tupac Shakur was deeply touched by Yummy Sandifer’s story.  In his ‘White Man’s World” song Tupac gave his condolences by Yummy:

“Rest in Peace to Latasha, Little Yummy, and Kato. Too Much for this cold world to take, ended up being fatal.”   

The song then ends with a excerpt of a speech by the Hon. Minister  Louis Farrakhan stating that “the seal and the constitution reflect the thinking of the founding fathers that this was to be a nation by white people and for white people. Native Americans, Blacks, and all other nonwhite people were to be the burden barriers for the real citizens of this nation.”

The truth is Yummy Sandifer never had a chance to succeed in this white man’s world, even in the post-Civil-Rights Era. Yummy was born to a 15 year old crack addicted prostitute and an incarcerated father.

That crackhead, or drug junkie, you see on the streets started off life no different from me or you.   That person also had dreams, aspirations, goals, hopes, and loved ones at one point in their life.    People in urban areas often turn to Marjuana, Cocaine, Crack and alcohol in an attempt to help them cope with or temporarily relieve themselves of the stresses and pains that they face every-day under this capitalistic society.  This is a reason why ‘loud a type of Marjuanna’ is such a huge subject of Chief Keef rap videos.

Yummy was abused from an early age, having over 40 scars and parts of his skin burnt from cigarettes.  He was eventually placed under the care of the state; once he escaped from his governmental mandated foster home he quickly took to the streets.

Hardaway, who was convicted for Yummy’s murder at fourteen years old, had this to say from prison:

“Yummy was the average black kid growing up in a drug infected community. It’s millions of Yummy’s it’s just that Robert Sandifer gained national attention. He was an impressionable kid who looked up to everyone that was in the streets. I knew him but he was a kid to me. I was a kid myself but I was older and involved in a lot more stuff.”

Indeed, there are millions of black children in urban areas throughout America, especially in the Southside of Chicago, who hang out on street corners, looking up to nobody but gang members and the illegal drug economy as the only mechanism to attain things that most whites have handed to them at birth— things like food, clothing, and shelter.  Like Yummy, Hardaway is also a victim; a victim of a racist, capitalist society that created the conditions where an illegal economy was the only way to provide for loved ones and have the basic necessities of life.

Black people have been systematically disempowered and live in the most violent areas, not because we are “naturally” aggressive, but because of economic conditions that have been imposed on us by malicious outside forces. The obstacles that were, and still are, put in place, to halt black socioeconomic aspirations, has resulted in black youth acquiring detrimental social, economic, and political habits that are exemplified in the Gangs that roam Chicago’s streets. The Gangs that we have in our community, the bloody knives that lay astray in the pavement, the white chalk on our sidewalks, the yellow tape surrounding vacant lots, and the rapid succession of bullets that are fired at one another are the cumulative effects of systematic institutionalized racism.

The Southern Poverty Law Center and The Myth of Black Separatist “Hate Groups.”

SPLC / Tolerance.org.

What is a Hate Group?  Once upon a time it was easy to determine hate groups in America.  They wore white sheets and called themselves the Ku Klux Klan. The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) has designated itself as THE group to brand an organization as a Hate Group.  It promotes itself as a non profit that monitors hate groups and other extremists throughout the U.S. and exposes their activities to law enforcement agencies, the media and the public.” They are a civil rights organization surprisingly established by a white attorney, Morris Dees, who once defended a Klansman in court.

Dees earned an acquittal for KKK  member Claude Henley, in spite of the prosecutor having pictures of him committing the crimes.  Henley, in 1961 faced federal charges for organizing mob attacks on freedom riders who sought to integrate public buses. In his autobiography,  A Lawyer’s Journey: The Morris Dees Story,  SPLC founder Morris Dees  describes feeling a guilty conscious over his defense of the Klan and after having a sudden “epiphany”, decided he would work to fight hate-groups and established the SPLC.

Since its founding in 1971, the SPLC has received numerous accolades for its efforts in challenging hate groups.  Dees has even received the  Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Award from the National Education Association and The Salem Award for Human Rights and Social Justice.

Mr. Dees was highly qualified in 1961 to  know what hate looked like from his experience representing the Ku Klux Klan.  However in 2018, today’s SPLC is highly unqualified to know what hate looks like when they classify Black nationalist organizations as hate groups.  Further, on their site, a closer look shows that the SPLC data on “hate groups” actually portrays Black Americans as larger proponents of hate than White Americans.

The SPLC database on “hate groups”  reveals a peculiar find. The SPLC asserts that there are 233 active Black nationalist hate groups in the United States compared to 72 active Ku Klux Klan groups.

How did the script get flipped?  How did the victims of the racism in America now become the most purveyors of hate? The words of Malcolm X ring true here, “If you’re not careful, the newspapers will have you hating the people who are being oppressed, and loving the people who are doing the oppressing.” 

The inflated number of Black “hate groups” is driven by the fact that each individual mosque of the Nation of Islam (NOI) is classified  by the SPLC as individual chapters of a hate group. The entire methodology the SPLC uses to classify “hate groups” is a false logic.  Just because The Nation of Islam teaches that Black people can do better for themselves in a land of their own, free from police brutality, high unemployment, the wage gap, the education gap, poor health, high crime, high rates of everything bad in life and low rates of everything good in life, does not mean he is teaching hate.  On the contrary, the Nation of Islam teaches love for black people. It’s a Black thing that many don’t understand.

When it comes to Black separatist “hate groups”, it must be remembered that Black folks did not arrive to this country on integrated slave ships. Black people were brought to the Americas against their will on slave ships.  Since then, the U.S government has systematically separated black people on slave plantations, prisons, and ghettos. The SPLC does not classify the U.S government as a hate group for seperating Black people in impoverished ghettos  but considers black organization who seek a freedom for Black people outside of the social-political, and economic structure of America as “hate groups.”

Effectively, the SPLC classifies any Black group who advances political positions outside of integrationism  as “hate groups.” Yet, under American ““integration” black people continue to suffer and at current trends will continue to lag behind whites in household wealth two whole centuries into the future! Seeing as though Black people were brought to this country against their will and never consented to be governed by America, the SPLC should perhaps be classified as a hate group itself because it defends a political arrangement that denies Black people their self determination.

What the SPLC needs to understand is that hate manifested as racism is the ability of white Americans to militarily, economically, politically, judicially, and legislatively control, dominate, and subjugate another ethnic group, the impetus being born out of resentment and derision of that ethnic group.  

In America, what NOI member ever prevented a white person from voting, acquiring an education, setting up business and killing them if they succeeded? Do Black NOI members control the majority of America’s wealth and have they carried out bombings of white towns because it was economically successful? Unlike the Klan, the NOI has no history of doing any of this nor do any of the   SPLC designated Black “hate groups” have the institutional power to discriminate, oppress, block the social mobility of any white person. Moreover, unlike the Klu Klux Klan, the NOI has no history of lynching, enslaving, discriminating against, any white person. It has never happened, and never will.

The SPLC points to the fact that the NOI has a “theology of innate Black superiority over whites” to support its claim of the NOI being a hate group.  Based upon this faulty logic, Black congressional members, from Maxine Waters to Keith Ellison have been demonized for merely attending NOI events. Following that logic, faulty as it is, if a theology that teaches love for self  to a people who were systematically taught to hate themselves for centuries can then be designated as a hate group then  surely the Mormon Church, whose religious text “the Book of Mormon”, claims Black people’s skin is a curse from God and that Blacks were meant to be subordinate to whites– should also be classified as a hate group. But they are not.  Why?

Where was the scrutiny against Mitt Romney during his presidential bid in 2012 for only belonging to a church whose “holy”  book teaches that Blacks were cursed and whose self-proclaimed prophet Joseph Smith justified the enslavement of Black people?  Sounds like hate to me. Moreover, throughout white churches in America both Protestant and Catholics, is an image of a white Jesus reinforcing the idea that God was white. Several theologians have indicated this white image of Jesus has instilled within Black people an inferiority complex.– when will all churches with a white Jesus be listed as  hate groups?

Another problematic element of the SPLC’s alleged fight against “hate” is the fact that they share their data on hate groups with law enforcement including local police as well as the FBI.  From the perspective of Black people, the FBI and local law enforcement have functioned as anti-Black hate groups. For example, after assassinating Black Panther leader, Fred Hampton, FBI, Special Agent Gregg York had this to say: “We expected about twenty Panthers to be in the apartment when the police raided the place. Only two of those Black niggers were killed, Fred Hampton and Mark Clark .”

Moreover, the FBI under J Edgar Hoover, implemented a variety of anti-Black policies including  the infamous cointelpro program that sought to disrupt and destroy Black organizations. How absurd is it for the SPLC to think its progressive for sharing its data on hate groups to the FBI, when the FBI has been complicit in anti-Black hatred.

While the SPLC may no longer be defending the Klan like its founder Attorney Morris Dees it still has a long way to go to really know what hate is all about.   

Chicago’s Gangs: A Product of Institutionalized Racism

 

            Chicago’s Gangs: A Product of Institutionalized Racism

Chicago is a city infamous for its ruthless gang violence. Even after much legislation attempting to solve the problem, gang warfare is still a destructive force in Chicago’s culture. It continues to squeeze the life out of black youth whose blood has been splattered all across Chicago’s streets. Many black youth grow up in abject poverty and see only two paths for their future: prison or death.Their mothers feel hopeless, as they stand unable to stretch their money for electricity, rent, insurance and food. Black communities endure subpar living conditions as seen through the decaying housing, substandard schools, drugs, and poverty. After examining these appalling social conditions, people often claim that the gangs that terrorize the community with violence are attributed to some “innate”delinquency or aggression amongst black youth. In reality, Chicago street gangs are a product of social conditions created by institutional racism, police brutality, and white vigilantism. Chicago’s state-sanctioned racism produces “thugs” and systematically strips the morality from people and replaces it with a stone cold heart that is seen as necessary to survive on these mean streets.Blacks have been systematically disempowered and live in the most violent areas, not because we are “naturally” aggressive, but because of economic conditions that have been imposed on us by  malicious outside forces.  The obstacles that were, and still are, put in place,  to halt black socioeconomic aspirations,  has resulted in black youth  acquiring detrimental social, economic, and political habits that are exemplified in the gangs that roam Chicago’s streets. The gangs that we have in our community, the bloody knives that lay astray in the pavement, the white chalk on our sidewalks, the yellow tape surrounding vacant lots, and the rapid succession of bullets that are fired at one another are the cumulative effects of systematic institutionalized racism.

                         Chicago: A History of Racist Brutality

 African-Americans that previously resided in the Klan-run South came to Chicago during the great migration, lured in by the promises of jobs and political rights. However, these opportunities were systematically denied. Since blacks have entered this city they have been met with a level of bigotry so disgusting, and so pervasive, that it is a core aspect of Chicago’s culture. African-Americans seeking tocreate a better life would still face the very same racism and violence they found in the south. However, instead of it being by the Klan, it would be by the Chicago Housing authority and white mobgroups. [1]

When blacks first came to Chicago they competed with the Irish over a scarce labor and housing market. In 1919, racial animosity reached a boiling point when a white person hit a blackchild with a rock while he was swimming in Michigan Lake. The black child drowned to death, but the Chicago Police Department refused to arrest the white aggressor. Blacks led a peaceful protest demanding justice, and as a result of their efforts they were viciously attacked by white mob groups. Whites entered the predominately black area on the Southside, terrorizing the black population through arsons and assaults. [2] Nobody, not even children, were spared in the attacks. They even sought to enter a predominately black hospital to terrorize the black patients there. As whites continued to set fire to black neighborhoods, the Chicago Fire Department was not allowed to operate in these communities. [3] Hundreds of African Americans, including women and children, were left homeless on the streets after fires demolished their homes in these senseless attacks. Richard J. Daley was 17 years old at the time and one of the leaders of the Irish Hamburg Athletic Club that led this senseless attack on the black community.  Instead of being punished for these clearly racist attacks, he was made Mayor of Chicago, where he would continue to push and support racist legislation to disenfranchise the black community. [4] Indeed, the white-ran Chicago housing authority from its inception worked to ensure that blacks lived in segregated neighborhoods.

Blacks were confined to the Southside and these areas were treated with inconceivable neglect by government agencies. The “Neighborhood Composition Rule” ordered that housing was to be segregated. This resulted in Black people being segregated in the Southside in what is known as “The Black Belt.”[5] Of course, all of the housing that the Chicago Housing Authority set aside for blacks was decrepit; many apartments lacked plumbing, were overcrowded, and far below requirements for healthy sanitation.[6] Even wealthy blacks were forced into substandard neighborhoods due to racial discrimination. As a direct result of these social conditions, the infant mortality rate for blacks sky-rocketed to well above the national average. Eventually, the neighborhood Composition rule was eventually struck down. This was met by complete outrage by white vigilante groups who, once again, terrorized the local black population with heartless violent confrontations. While blacks were portrayed as being “violent”, many times it was not the “delinquent” black youth attacking innocent peaceful white people but vice-versa. Indeed, during this time blacks lived under increased threats of violence and fear from whites. Blacks had no choice but to live in the ghetto because of the terrorism inflicted by whites against those would dared to live on the outskirts of their state created locus. [7 ]During these times, overt discrimination against blacks reigned supreme in every area of Chicago’s society, such as employment, housing, health care, and every other opportunity for upward social mobility.

Modern Day Disenfranchisement of Blacks in Chicago

In America, the common belief is that Civil Rights legislation ended discrimination against African-Americans. The fact of the matter is that blacks in Chicago are still discriminated against at unprecedented levels!

Health Care

Discrimination and apartheid-like conditions characterize Chicago’s health-care system. Despite there being high levels of violence and shootings on the Southside, there is no trauma center to operate on victims, leaving youth to die in the streets. Yet, there are plenty of hospitals and trauma centers in affluent white areas despite the low levels of violence. [8] Blacks that are exposed to this violence develop post-traumatic stress disorder, similar to troops returning from combat. For many it isn’t “post-trauma” but a continuous cycle[9]. In spite of this, Rahm Emmanuel has plans to close down mental health facilities in Chicago’s low income areas.[10]  In the current hospitals located in Chicago, blacks face rampant discrimination. Several studies have indicated that black patients receive excessive wait times and have been subject to expensive deposit requirements prior to treatment. [11] According to a study from UCLA, researchers found that racial discrimination is the key factor in explaining why blacks suffer from diabetes, cardiovascular disease, heart disease, and strokes, more than any other population. [12]  However, this discrimination not only affects patients, but also workers. Jackson Park Hospital has recently been ordered to pay $80,000 after being exposed for racist practices against its black workers.[13]

Housing

Chicago is divided between affluent whites on the north-side and impoverished blacks on the South-side but even blacks with wealth find themselves unable to move out of the ghetto. Though it is illegal, housing discrimination continues to affect African-Americans in Chicago. All Civil-Rights legislation did was ban “No Colored” signs but racism in the housing market continues to disenfranchise blacks.  African-American borrowers were given higher-interest on subprime mortgages when compared to whites – even when they qualified for much better deals.[14] Even “blockbusting” referring to racist practices by real-estate agents, against blacks, was pioneered in Chicago![15] Today, Chicago stands as the most racially segregated city in America. [16]

Schools
Even after the Supreme Court’s Brown V.S Board of Education decision to desegregate schools, Chicago’s schools remain segregated. According, to the Progressive Labor Party “In 2000, 54% of black public school students in Chicago attended schools that did not have a single white student enrolled, 274 schools were 90% or more black, and 173 of those schools, 30% of all Chicago public schools, were 100% black.” [17]  Many whites attend schools with greater infrastructure and resources, located in suburban areas. Chicago Public Schools has nine elite selective enrollment schools that students must “test into” in order to get a quality education.  These culturally biased “selective-enrollment” tests give Chicago Public School the ability to keep schools segregated. Students unable to test into these schools are shipped into school-to-prison pipeline lacking libraries and adequate material needed to teach the classroom.   The Chicago Teachers union indicated that “Chicago Public Schools remains one of the urban school systems that[’s]“only a few percentage points from an experience of total apartheid.” [18]  These schools are fundamentally preparing black youth for a life of solitary confinement. Only 3 out of 100 Chicago Public School freshmen earn a Bachelor degree by the age of twenty-five. Education for black students is still not equal to that of whites.[19]

 Employment

Discrimination continues to be perpetuated against African-Americans in the job market.  Studies have found that applicants with more “Black-Sounding” names on resumes (i.e. Jamal, Lakeshia) were less likely to be called back for an interview than applicants with more “White-Sounding” names(I.E John, Emily) even when credentials were identical. [20] Even more troubling, a study found employers to be more likely to hire a white person with a criminal record than a black person without one, even when qualifications were exactly the same.[21]

Business/Loans
Foreigners, specifically Arab merchants, own the majority of stores in African-American communities within Chicago. These are pseudo-grocery stores that sell inflated unhealthy goods to the community and often collaborate with gangs in the illegal drug trade. The black community has a huge lack of black business ownership; so much so, when there is a store owned by blacks you often see the sign “black-owned business” in the window. The majority of the stores in the black community should be owned by blacks; the fact that we have signs saying “black-owned” business demonstrates the severity of our situation. The fact of the matter is that there are plenty of black entrepreneurs who seek to set-up business in the black community, but they face constant barriers through discriminatory loan practices by banks. Banks have consistently been found not to loan to blacks, or will charge themhigher interest rates (regardless of their credit!) than they dowhites and other minority entrepreneurs.[22]
Car loans
Auto-shop dealerships in Chicago consistently discriminate against African-Americans. A study in Chicago sent various races to car dealerships to purchase  a car. They discovered that  auto dealerships offered lower prices to white males than blacks, even in identical financial situations on interest rate loans. Black males on average were priced twice the amount of whites, and black females were ask to pay more than three times  the amount as white males.[23]These types of discriminatory practices are responsible for minorities depending upon public transportation such as the CTA(Chicago Transit Authority).  These buses are often extremely overcrowded, breeding hostilities between customers and causing unnecessary conflict from the congested environment.

The Origin of Gang Violence

Black street gangs do not come out of the sky. Their origins are undeniably rooted in state imposed substandard social conditions. Gangs result from the myriad ways in which this racist government has confined black youth in the most atrocious of social conditions. It is undeniably accredited to the denial of economic opportunities, denial of quality education, and racist violence inhumanely inflicted by covetous white vigilante groups. Discrimination against black youth runs rampant on the job market. And as  hip-hop Artist Nas once said “Anytime brothers can’t get jobs, they rob. A man would rather die than live on his knees and starve.”[24]Street gangs allow people to experience a bond that surrogates climbing up the socio-economic ladder, the same one that has systematically excluded blacks.

Unlike parasitic western capitalists that rob and kill the resources of entire countries out of pure greed, inner-city youth participate in these actions for pure survival. Gangs go to war with one another to protect their “turf”. As Freeway once said “Even though what we do is wrong… don’t you know a cops sole purpose is to lock us down and throw away the key. But without this drug shit your kids ain’t got no way to eat?”[26] The drugs that gangs sell act as a mechanism for historically impoverished and disenfranchised people to have a taste at what being wealthy feels like. Often times, the drug economy is sometimes the only way in which they can provide for their families. Indeed, between 1967 and 1982, nearly 50% of Chicago’s manufacturing jobs were eliminated.[27]   This devastated Chicago’s black community and gangs skyrocketed.  Of course, such an event is inevitable under capitalism which seeks to outsource to foreign countries for cheap labor to increase profits. John M. Hagedorn writes that “The conditions in Chicago’s poorest neighborhoods came to resemble impoverished Third World countries, and police harassment was ever-present.”[28] Also worth noting is that the Chicago government has also responded to white street gangs and black street gangs differently. Contrary to popular belief, the first gangs in Chicago were not black but white, specifically Irish. Unlike Black Street gangs that formed out of economic necessity, these gangs formed amongst white youth to terrorize black communities who dared to defy racist segregation  laws.[29]

Chicago’s government decided to take a rehabilitation approach with these white Irish gangs and transform them into “respectable” members of society. Indeed, the entire Irish gang that brutalized and decimated black communities was transformed into the Chicago Police Department. Richard D. Daley, who was a dedicated member of one of these gangs, later became Mayor. There has never been a serious attempt by the Chicago government to rehabilitate black gang members into society. Instead, the government has only responded through police occupation of black communities. [30]

Also, the black community has taken numerous steps to deal with gang-violence and all of them were foiled by the government.   Fred Hampton, the leader of the  Black Panther Party For Self Defense, attempted to form an alliance with Chicago’s black street gangs to turn them into an activist organization.[31] Instead of allowing this alliance to manifest, the FBI would instead forge letters between the two groups to breed hostility. The Chicago Police Department would eventually assassinate the Black Panthers leader Fred Hampton.[32] This alliance had the potential to unify black street gangs and end the violence that they were perpetrating against one another but the government would not allow for it to materialize. Today, gang violence continues to take the lives of black youth.

 Shoutouts

1.Housing: “A Short History,” http://southside.uchicago.edu/History/Housing.html

2 “Chicago Race Riot of 1919”.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-04.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/110488/Chicago-Race-Riot-of-1919

3.) Tuttle, William. Race Riot Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (Urbana, IL; University of Illinois Press, 1970)

4)   RACE NOT SPACE: A REVISIONIST HISTORY OFGANGS IN CHICAGO John M. Hagedorn* gangresearch.net/Archives/hagedorn/articles/racenotspace.pdf

5) Housing: “A Short History,” http://southside.uchicago.edu/History/Housing.html

6) Arnold Richard Hirsch, “Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960”, University of Chicago,1998,http://books.google.com/books?id=px0PuO7GWhsC&pg=PP1&ots=9I1rYsYyNh&dq=%22Making+the+Second+Ghetto%22+hirsch&sig=IPgKY-xgpCRZwpCsboI_rk0UPgc#PPA18,M1

7 ) Arnold Richard Hirsch, “Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960”, University of Chicago,1998,http://books.google.com/books?id=px0PuO7GWhsC&pg=PP1&ots=9I1rYsYyNh&dq=%22Making+the+Second+Ghetto%22+hirsch&sig=IPgKY-xgpCRZwpCsboI_rk0UPgc#PPA18,M1

8)   Asraa MustufaFriday, June 17 2011 http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/06/chicago_activists_push_for_trauma_center_on_the_south_side.html Chicago Activists Push for Trauma Center on the South Side

9) “I See Everything Through This Tragedy” February 12, 2012, 11:00 am ET by Alex Kotlowitz http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/social-issues/interrupters/i-see-everything-through-this-tragedy/

10) Karen Jordan Activists rally against mental health clinic closures

Tuesday, April 17, 2012  http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/local&id=8624017

11)  Race, Health Care and the Law Speaking Truth to Power!

Institutional Racism in US Health Care http://academic.udayton.edu/health/07humanrights/racial01c.htm

12)  Discrimination Contributes To African-American Health Disparitiea  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/55345.php 01 Nov 2006 – 3:00 PST

13)  Chicago’s Jackson Park Hospital Settles Discrimination Charges

Written by Molly Gamble | November 22, 2011http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/chicagos-jackson-park-hospital-settles-discrimination-charges.html

14) Black Borrowers Face Higher Hurdles in Lending, Study ShowsBy Stefanos Chen  Feb 24th 2012 1:48PM

 http://realestate.aol.com/blog/2012/02/24/black-borrowers-face-higher-hurdles-in-lending-study-shows/

15)  A Requiem for Blockbusting: Law, Economics, and Race-Based Real Estate Speculation Dmitri Mehlhornhttp://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?articl The Schools Chicago’s Students Deserve

02/16/2012

e=3528&context=flr

16  Chicago Most Segregated City In America, Despite Significant Improvements In Last Decade

01/31/2012 12:49 pm http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/31/chicago-most-segregated-c_n_1244098.html

17  http://www.plp.org/leaflets-pamphlets/pamphlets/Racism_pamphlet2.pdf PROGRESSIVE LABOR PARTY ON RACE AND RACISM

18) The Schools Chicago’s Students Deserve

02/16/2012 HTTP://WWW.CTUNET.COM/BLOG/TEXT/SCSD_REPORT-02-16-2012-1.PDF

19) Consortium for School Research at the University of Chicago

20)  “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination,” Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2003.

21) The Mark of a Criminal Record Devah Pager Northwestern Universityhttp://www.princeton.edu/~pager/pager_ajs.pdf

22) http://www.dartmouth.edu/~blnchflr/papers/finalrestat.pdf DISCRIMINATION IN THE SMALL  BUSINESS CREDIT MARKET

23)   Race and Gender Discrimination in Bargaining  for a New Car

By  IAN  AYRES  AND  PETER SIEGELMAN*http://islandia.law.yale.edu/ayers/Ayres%20Siegelman%20Race%20and%20Gender%20Discrimination%20In%20Bargaining%20%20for%20a%20New%20Car.pdf

24)) NAS LYRICS “Hold Down The Block” (feat. Mark B. Mayfield) http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/nas/holddowntheblock.html

26) Freeway, What We Do http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/freeway/whatwedo.html

27 )   RACE NOT SPACE: A REVISIONIST HISTORY OFGANGS IN CHICAGO John M. Hagedorn* gangresearch.net/Archives/hagedorn/articles/racenotspace.pdf

28) Rates of of poverty, violence, and other indicators of social exclusion resemble Third world cities like Rio de Janiero, Cape Town, and Lagos more than they resemble lower-class European urban aieasofpoverty. JohnM.Hagedorn, “Youth in Organized Armed Violence in Chicago” in Neither War Nor Peace: International

 29) RACE NOT SPACE: A REVISIONIST HISTORY OFGANGS IN CHICAGO John M. Hagedorn* gangresearch.net/Archives/hagedorn/articles/racenotspace.pdf

30) Ibid.

31) Ibid.

32) Ibid. Also see The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther by Jeffrey Haas.

How racism created Chicago Gangs

chicago-ghetto African-Americans that previously resided in the Klan-run South came to Chicago during the great migration, lured in by the promises of jobs and political rights. However, these opportunities were systematically denied. Since blacks have entered this city they have been met with a level of bigotry so disgusting, and so pervasive, that it is a core aspect of Chicago’s culture. African-Americans seeking tocreate a better life would still face the very same racism and violence they found in the south. However, instead of it being by the Klan, it would be by the Chicago Housing authority and white mob groups. When blacks first came to Chicago they competed with the Irish over a scarce labor and housing market. In 1919, racial animosity reached a boiling point when a white person hit a blackchild with a rock while he was swimming in Michigan Lake. The black child drowned to death, but the Chicago Police Department refused to arrest the white aggressor. Blacks led a peaceful protest demanding justice, and as a result of their efforts they were viciously attacked by white mob groups. Whites entered the predominately black area on the Southside, terrorizing the black population through arsons and assaults.Nobody, not even children, were spared in the attacks. They even sought to enter a predominately black hospital to terrorize the black patients there. As whites continued to set fire to black neighborhoods, the Chicago Fire Department was not allowed to operate in these communities.

Hundreds of African Americans, including women and children, were left homeless on the streets after fires demolished their homes in these Chicago_Violence_Funeral-0e431-3658senseless attacks. Richard J. Daley was 17 years old at the time and one of the leaders of the Irish Hamburg Athletic Club that led this senseless attack on the black community.  Instead of being punished for these clearly racist attacks, he was made Mayor of Chicago, where he would continue to push and support racist legislation to disenfranchise the black community. Indeed, the white-ran Chicago housing authority from its inception worked to ensure that blacks lived in segregated neighborhoods. Blacks were confined to the Southside and these areas were treated with inconceivable neglect by government agencies. The “Neighborhood Composition Rule” ordered that housing was to be segregated. This resulted in Black people being segregated in the Southside in what is known as “The Black Belt.”Of course, all of the housing that the Chicago Housing Authority set aside for blacks was decrepit; many apartments lacked plumbing, were overcrowded, and far below requirements for healthy sanitation.

violencechicagoEven wealthy blacks were forced into substandard neighborhoods due to racial discrimination. As a direct result of these social conditions, the infant mortality rate for blacks sky-rocketed to well above the national average. Eventually, the neighborhood Composition rule was eventually struck down. This was met by complete outrage by white vigilante groups who, once again, terrorized the local black population with heartless violent confrontations. While blacks were portrayed as being “violent”, many times it was not the “delinquent” black youth attacking innocent peaceful white people but vice-versa. Indeed, during this time blacks lived under increased threats of violence and fear from whites. Blacks had no choice but to live in the ghetto because of the terrorism inflicted by whites against those would dared to live on the outskirts of their state created locus. During these times, overt discrimination against blacks reigned supreme in every area of Chicago’s society, such as employment, housing, health care, and every other opportunity for upward social mobility.

Black street gangs do not come out of the sky. Their origins are undeniably rooted in state imposed substandard social conditions. Gangs resultchicago4343 from the myriad ways in which this racist government has confined black youth in the most atrocious of social conditions. It is undeniably accredited to the denial of economic opportunities, denial of quality education, and racist violence inhumanely inflicted by covetous white vigilante groups. Discrimination against black youth runs rampant on the job market.  Often times, the drug economy is sometimes the only way in which they can provide for their families. Indeed, between 1967 and 1982, nearly 50% of Chicago’s manufacturing jobs were eliminated.   This devastated Chicago’s black community and gangs skyrocketed.  Of course, such an event is inevitable under capitalism which seeks to outsource to foreign countries for cheap labor to increase profits. John M. Hagedorn writes that “The conditions in Chicago’s poorest neighborhoods came to resemble impoverished Third World countries, and police harassment was ever-present.” Also worth noting is that the Chicago government has also responded to white street gangs and black street gangs differently. Contrary to popular belief, the first gangs in Chicago were not black but white, specifically Irish. Unlike Black Street gangs that formed out of economic necessity, these gangs formed amongst white youth to terrorize black communities who dared to defy racist segregation  laws.

Chicago’s government decided to take a rehabilitation approach with these white Irish gangs and transform them into “respectable” members of society. Indeed, the entire Irish gang that brutalized and decimated black communities was transformed into the Chicago Police Department. Richard D. Daley, who was a dedicated member of one of these gangs, later became Mayor. There has never been a serious attempt by the Chicago government to rehabilitate black gang members into society. Instead, the government has only responded through police occupation of black communities.  Also, the black community has taken numerous steps to deal with gang-violence and all of them were foiled by the government.   Fred Hampton, the leader of the  Black Panther Party For Self Defense, attempted to form an alliance with Chicago’s black street gangs to turn them into an activist organization Instead of allowing this alliance to manifest, the FBI would instead forge letters between the two groups to breed hostility. The Chicago Police Department would eventually assassinate the Black Panthers leader Fred Hampton. This alliance had the potential to unify black street gangs and end the violence that they were perpetrating against one another but the government would not allow for it to materialize. Today, gang violence continues to take the lives of black youth.

 

. Chicago’s state-sanctioned racism produces “thugs” and systematically strips the morality from people and replaces it with a stone cold heart The Third World Inside of America: A Critical Look at the Southside of Chicago PT 1that is seen as necessary to survive on these mean streets.Blacks have been systematically disempowered and live in the most violent areas, not because we are “naturally” aggressive, but because of economic conditions that have been imposed on us by  malicious outside forces.  The obstacles that were, and still are, put in place,  to halt black socioeconomic aspirations,  has resulted in black youth  acquiring detrimental social, economic, and political habits that are exemplified in the gangs that roam Chicago’s streets. The gangs that we have in our community, the bloody knives that lay astray in the pavement, the white chalk on our sidewalks, the yellow tape surrounding vacant lots, and the rapid succession of bullets that are fired at one another are the cumulative effects of systematic institutionalized racism.

————————

1.Housing: “A Short History,” http://southside.uchicago.edu/History/Housing.html

2 “Chicago Race Riot of 1919″.Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-04.http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/110488/Chicago-Race-Riot-of-1919

3.) Tuttle, William. Race Riot Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (Urbana, IL; University of Illinois Press, 1970)

4)   RACE NOT SPACE: A REVISIONIST HISTORY OFGANGS IN CHICAGO John M. Hagedorn* gangresearch.net/Archives/hagedorn/articles/racenotspace.pdf

5) Housing: “A Short History,” http://southside.uchicago.edu/History/Housing.html

6) Arnold Richard Hirsch, “Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960″, University of Chicago,1998,http://books.google.com/books?id=px0PuO7GWhsC&pg=PP1&ots=9I1rYsYyNh&dq=%22Making+the+Second+Ghetto%22+hirsch&sig=IPgKY-xgpCRZwpCsboI_rk0UPgc#PPA18,M1

7 ) Arnold Richard Hirsch, “Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago 1940-1960″, University of Chicago,1998,http://books.google.com/books?id=px0PuO7GWhsC&pg=PP1&ots=9I1rYsYyNh&dq=%22Making+the+Second+Ghetto%22+hirsch&sig=IPgKY-xgpCRZwpCsboI_rk0UPgc#PPA18,M1

8)   Asraa MustufaFriday, June 17 2011 http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/06/chicago_activists_push_for_trauma_center_on_the_south_side.html Chicago Activists Push for Trauma Center on the South Side

9) “I See Everything Through This Tragedy” February 12, 2012, 11:00 am ET by Alex Kotlowitz http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/social-issues/interrupters/i-see-everything-through-this-tragedy/

10) Karen Jordan Activists rally against mental health clinic closures

Tuesday, April 17, 2012  http://abclocal.go.com/wls/story?section=news/local&id=8624017

11)  Race, Health Care and the Law Speaking Truth to Power!

Institutional Racism in US Health Care http://academic.udayton.edu/health/07humanrights/racial01c.htm

12)  Discrimination Contributes To African-American Health Disparitiea  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/55345.php 01 Nov 2006 – 3:00 PST

13)  Chicago’s Jackson Park Hospital Settles Discrimination Charges

Written by Molly Gamble | November 22, 2011http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/chicagos-jackson-park-hospital-settles-discrimination-charges.html

14) Black Borrowers Face Higher Hurdles in Lending, Study ShowsBy Stefanos Chen  Feb 24th 2012 1:48PM

 http://realestate.aol.com/blog/2012/02/24/black-borrowers-face-higher-hurdles-in-lending-study-shows/

15)  A Requiem for Blockbusting: Law, Economics, and Race-Based Real Estate Speculation Dmitri Mehlhornhttp://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?articl The Schools Chicago’s Students Deserve

02/16/2012

e=3528&context=flr

16  Chicago Most Segregated City In America, Despite Significant Improvements In Last Decade

01/31/2012 12:49 pm http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/31/chicago-most-segregated-c_n_1244098.html

17  http://www.plp.org/leaflets-pamphlets/pamphlets/Racism_pamphlet2.pdf PROGRESSIVE LABOR PARTY ON RACE AND RACISM

18) The Schools Chicago’s Students Deserve

02/16/2012 HTTP://WWW.CTUNET.COM/BLOG/TEXT/SCSD_REPORT-02-16-2012-1.PDF

19) Consortium for School Research at the University of Chicago

20)  “Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination,” Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2003.

21) The Mark of a Criminal Record Devah Pager Northwestern Universityhttp://www.princeton.edu/~pager/pager_ajs.pdf

22) http://www.dartmouth.edu/~blnchflr/papers/finalrestat.pdf DISCRIMINATION IN THE SMALL  BUSINESS CREDIT MARKET

23)   Race and Gender Discrimination in Bargaining  for a New Car

By  IAN  AYRES  AND  PETER SIEGELMAN*http://islandia.law.yale.edu/ayers/Ayres%20Siegelman%20Race%20and%20Gender%20Discrimination%20In%20Bargaining%20%20for%20a%20New%20Car.pdf

24)) NAS LYRICS “Hold Down The Block” (feat. Mark B. Mayfield) http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/nas/holddowntheblock.html

26) Freeway, What We Do http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/freeway/whatwedo.html

27 )   RACE NOT SPACE: A REVISIONIST HISTORY OFGANGS IN CHICAGO John M. Hagedorn* gangresearch.net/Archives/hagedorn/articles/racenotspace.pdf

28) Rates of of poverty, violence, and other indicators of social exclusion resemble Third world cities like Rio de Janiero, Cape Town, and Lagos more than they resemble lower-class European urban aieasofpoverty. JohnM.Hagedorn, “Youth in Organized Armed Violence in Chicago” in Neither War Nor Peace: International

 29) RACE NOT SPACE: A REVISIONIST HISTORY OFGANGS IN CHICAGO John M. Hagedorn* gangresearch.net/Archives/hagedorn/articles/racenotspace.pdf

30) Ibid.

31) Ibid.

32) Ibid. Also see The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther by Jeffrey Haas.

ADL Fails To Disprove Claim Israel is an Apartheid Regime.

In a shameful display of grotesque incompetence, the Anti-Defamation League(ADL) published the article Response To Common Inaccuracy: Israel is an Apartheid State, seeking to challenge common comparisons made between Israel and Apartheid, South Africa.  The ADL claims that unlike Israel “[t]he apartheid regime imposed ‘bantustans,’ impoverished autonomous homelands whose borders were designed to exclusive economically viable land, upon 12 million black South Africans.”  The problem is the ADL has omitted the fact that the Israeli defense force actually worked to police black people in apartheid South Africa’s bantustans. 

In a 1984, the United Nations’ special Committee report titled Recent Developments concerning relations between  Israel and South Africa, notes “[d]espite the denials of the Government of Israel it continues to collaborate with the racist regime of South Africa as well as the bantustans, particularly in the military and nuclear fields.” In a strong condemnation, the General Assembly of the United Nations’ went as far as to declare that actions of  “Israel are the main obstacles that have frustrated international efforts for the elimination of apartheid.” 

Under the apartheid system, Black people could only travel to white areas for work if they had a pass.The apartheid government was built on the white supremacist belief that Blacks were not needed in white areas except as a unit of labor.  The police of apartheid government established checkpoints to ensure that Blacks were in white areas exclusively to perform labor. This system resulted in logistical difficulties in the form of excessively long lines

In search of a solution, apartheid South Africa’s former police chief, Constand Viljeon, visited Occupied Palestine in 1977. He unabashedly admired how Israel controlled the movements of the Palestinians, writing, “The thoroughness with which Israel conducts this examination is astonishing.” In admiration, Costand Vijeon sent white South African soldiers to Israeli militarily school with the goal  of replicating their system in South Africa. 

As the anti-apartheid struggle took place, Nelson Mandela’s uMkhonto we Sizwe began to engage in guerrilla warfare to fight the white racist government.  Through its continued battles with the Palestinian Liberation Organization, the Israeli military gained valuable military expertise in how to fight guerrilla movements.

In the Unnatural Alliance: Israel and South Africa, James Adam, a former board member of the National Security Agency and an expert of warfare strategy analyzed  apartheid, South Africa’s military tactics against the black guerrilla fighters. James Adam concluded that apartheid, South Africa’s “armed forces are equipped by Israel and their counterinsurgency tactics have evolved almost entirely as a result of lessons learned by the Israelis in their fight against the Palestine Liberation Organization.”    

Due to the violent repression of anti-apartheid activists, many black freedom fighters of the ANC had to flee the country. In Who Israel Arms and Why, Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi  writes that “ANC leaders in exile began receiving parcel bombs and letter bombs in the mail; the terror campaign resulted from cooperation with the Mossad, which has used similar techniques against PLO leaders.” In other words, Israel’s intelligence agency aided the apartheid regime of South Africa in assassinating Black people who merely wanted to live dignified live free of white racism.

In light of history, the Anti-Defamation League should be classifying the Israeli military as an anti-black hate group. Yet, seeking to disprove the claim that Israel is an apartheid state, the ADL asserts:

 

Indeed, former South African Constitutional Court Justice Richard Goldstone wrote in a New York Times op-ed that accusing Israel of apartheid “is an unfair and inaccurate slander against Israel, calculated to retard rather than advance peace negotiations.

Amazing! The Anti-Defamation League cites one of the most ruthless apartheid era judges Richard Goldstone as a credible source. This is the same  Goldstone who once sentenced two black men to a prison sentence for merely possessing a video tape of a senior official in Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress.  Indeed, during the height of apartheid, Goldstone sentenced over 28 Black people to the death penalty. In contrast, the Anti-Defamation League demonizes heroic anti-apartheid activist Desmond Tutu as anti-Semitic for his belief that “Israeli policies towards Palestinians are the same or worse than those imposed against black South Africans under apartheid.”  When the ADL is upholding the perpetrators of apartheid while demonizing its victims it is clear that something is not right.